2021 №02 (06) DOI of Article
2021 №02 (02)

Technical Diagnostics and Non-Destructive Testing 2021 #02
Technical Diagnostics and Non-Destructive Testing #2, 2021, pp. 7-13

Three-dimensional visualization of the detected defects by eddy current computing tomography

O.O. Vertiy1, V.M. Uchanin2

1Kharkiv National University of Radio Electronics. 14 Nauky Ave., 61058, Kharkiv, Ukraine. E-mail: alexey.vertiy@gmail.com
2G.V. Karpenko Physico-Mechanical Institute of NASU. 5 Naukova str., 79060, Lviv, Ukraine. E-mail: vuchanin@gmail.com

Nondestructive computing tomography methods based on different physical phenomena are reviewed as an effective tool to solve many NDT problems in the context of NDE 4.0 revolution. Eddy current (EC) tomography principle and experimental set-up are presented to demonstrate the possibility to reconstruct the tomography images related to the distribution of material electric conductivity. A riveted joint of two aluminum alloy sheets with 2 mm long artificial crack like defects was selected as an example of complex enough structure for control. Investigations were carried out with two types of EC probes application: the first one – the traditional EC probe of absolute type with coaxial driving and sensing coils, and the second – low-frequency double differential EC probe of MDF 1201 type. The set of vertical (orthogonal to the inspected surface) slices for the rivet zone were obtained to demonstrate the effectiveness of EC tomography. The horizontal slices were analyzed to demonstrate the possibility to produce tomography images at different depths. Two-layer structures, consisting of upper sheets with thicknesses from 0 to 8 mm and 5 mm thick lower sheath with a crack like defect were applied to reconstruct the vertical tomography slices with double differential EC probe application. The latter results demonstrate the high penetration ability of inspection using double differentiation EC probes and the possibility to estimate the defect size and distance from the inspected surface. 34 Ref., 8 Fig.
Keywords: eddy current (EC) tomography, eddy current probe (EC probe), double differentiation EC probe, electric conductivity, tomography images, slices, riveted joints

Received: 18.03.2021


1. Liao, Y., Deschamps, F., Loures, E.F.R., Ramos, L.F.P. (2017) Past, present and future of Industry 4.0 - a systematic literature review and research agenda proposal. Intern. J. of Production Research, 55, 12, 3609-3629. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2017.1308576
2. Drath, R., Horch, A. (2014) Industrie 4.0: Hit or Hype. IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, 8(2), 56-58. https://doi.org/10.1109/MIE.2014.2312079
3. Yurchak, A. (2019) Far from the neighbours: why Ukraine lags behind in the sphere of industrial development 4.0. Ekonomichna Pravda. https://www.epravda.com.ua/rus/columns/2019/11/5/653346.
4. Singh, R. (2019) The Next Revolution in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation: What and How. Materials Evaluation, 77(1), 45-50.
5. Vrana, J. (2020) NDE Perception and Emerging Reality: NDE 4.0 Value Extraction, Materials Evaluation, 78(7), 835-851. https://doi.org/10.32548/2020.me-04131
6. Naida, V.L., Uchanin, V.N., Mozhukhin, A.A. et al. (2008) Development of elements of a system of automated eddy current testing of collector bridges in nuclear power plants. Tekh. Diagnost. i Nerazrush. Kontrol, 3, 21-24 [in Russian].
7. Lutcenko, G., Uchanin, V., Mischenko, V., Opanasenko A. (2012) Eddy Currents Versus Magnetic Particles. Proc. 18-th World Conf. on Nondestructive Testing, Durban, www.ndt.com.
8. Dolinenko, V.V., Shapovalov, E.V., Skuba, T.G. et al. (2017) Robotic system of non-destructive eddy-current testing of complex geometry products. The Paton Welding J., 5-6, 60-67. https://doi.org/10.15407/as2017.06.10
9. Lysenko, Ju., Eremenko, V., Kuts, Yu. et al. (2020) Advanced signal processing methods for inspection of aircraft structural materials. Transactions on Aerospace Research, 2(259), 27-35. https://doi.org/10.2478/tar-2020-0008
10. Hounsfield, G. N. (1972) A method and apparatus for examination of a body by radiation such as X-ray or gamma radiation. British Patent No. 1283915. British Patent Office, London.
11. Vajnberg, E.I., Klyuev, V.V., Kurozaev, V.P. (1986) Industrial X-ray computed tomography: Book. Devices for nondestructive testing of materials and products: Refer. book. Ed. by V.V. Klyuev. 2nd Ed., Moscow, Vol. 1 [in Russian].
12. Vajnberg, E.I., Kazak, I.A., Kurozaev, V.P. (1981) Reconstruction of internal space structure of objects by integral projections in real time. DAN SSSR, 257(1), 89-94 [in Russian].
13. Reimers, P., Goebbels, J. (1983) New Possibilities of Nondestructive Evaluation by X-ray Computed Tomography. Materials Evaluation, 42(6), 732-737.
14. Maire, E., Buffiere, J., Salvo, L. et al. (2001) On the Application of X-ray Microtomography in the Field of Materials Science. Advanced Engineering materials. 3(8), 539-546. https://doi.org/10.1002/1527-2648(200108)3:8<539::AID-ADEM539>3.0.CO;2-6
15. Nazarchuk, Z.T., Koshovy, V.V., Krivin, E.V., Romanyshyn, I.M. (1999) Ultrasonic tomography, technologies for NDT and monitoring of material degradation. Proc. Joint EC IAEA Specialists Meeting on NDT Methods for Monitoring Degradation. Petten, The Netherlands, 79-89.
16. Koshovyy, V.V., Nazarchuk, Z.T. (2001) Estimating the Predefective State of a Material Using Methods of Ultrasonic Computerized Tomography. Materials Science, 37(2), 279-293. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1013219011254
17. Koshevoj, V.V., Romanishin, I.M., Romanishin, R.I., Sharamaga, R.V. (2010) Ultrasonic computer tomography based on recording of a signal scattered by material structure. Pt. 1. Tekh. Diagnost. i Nerazrush. Kontrol, 2, 37-42 [in Russian].
18. Koshevoj, V.V., Romanishin, I.M., Romanishin, R.I., Sharamaga, R.V. (2010) Ultrasonic computer tomography based on recording of a signal scattered by material structure. Pt. 2. Ibid, 3, 19-24 [in Russian].
19. Turk, A.S., Hocaoglu, A.K., Vertiy, A.A. (Eds.) (2011) Subsurface sensing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 890 p.
20. Vertiy, A., Gavrilov, S., Voynovskyy, I., Stepanyuk, V. (2002) The millimeter wave tomography application for the subsurface imaging. Int. J. of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, 23(10), 1413-1444. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020321301479
21. Gavrilov, S.P., Vertiy, A.A. (1997) Application of tomography method in millimeter wavelengths band: I. Theoretical. Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves, 18(9), 1739-1760. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02678285
22. Vertiy, A.A., Gavrilov, S.P. (1997) Application of tomography method in millimeter wavelengths band: II. Experimental. Ibid, 18(9), 1761-1781. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02678286
23. Vertiy, A., Gavrilov, S., Voynovskyy, I. et al. (2004) Subsurface imaging by deep penetrating eddy current tomography. Фізичні методи та засоби контролю середовищ, матеріалів та виробів, 9, 123-127.
24. Vertiy, A.A., Gavrilov, S.P., Voynovskyy, I.V. et al. (2004) Deep penetrating eddy current tomography for subsurface imaging. Proc. 10-th Int. Workshop on Electromagnetic Evaluation. Michigan, USA. 91-92.
25. Tamburrino, A. Rubinacci, G. (2002) A new non-iterative inversion method for electrical resistance tomography. Inverse Problems, 18(6), 1809-1829. https://doi.org/10.1088/0266-5611/18/6/323
26. Tamburrino, A., Soleimani, M. (2006) Shape reconstruction in magnetic induction tomography using multifrequency data. International. J. of informaton and systems sciences, 2(3), 343-353.
27. Tamburrino, A., Rubinacci, G., Soleimani, M., Lionheart, W. (2003) Non iterative inversion method for electrical resistance, capacitance and inductance tomography. 3-rd World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, Banff, Canada, pp. 233-238.
28. Tamburrino, A., Rubinacci, G. (2006) Fast methods for quantitative eddy-current tomography of conductive materials. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 42(8), 2017-2028. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMAG.2006.877542
29. Uchanin, V.N. (2010) Eddy current overlay transducers: Expanded classification, comparative analysis and characteristic examples of realization. (Review). Tekh. Diagnost. i Nerazrush. Kontrol, 4, 24-29 [in Russian].
30. Uchanin, V.M. (2007) Specific features of the space distribution of the signal of an eddy-current converter caused by cracks of different lengths. Materials Science, 43, 591-595. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11003-007-0068-2
31. Uchanin, V.M. (2013) Eddy-current put-on transducers of double differentiation. Lviv, Spolom [in Ukrainian].
32. Mook, G., Hesse, J., Uchanin, V. (2007) Deep penetrating eddy currents and probes. Materials Testing, 49(5), 258-264. https://doi.org/10.3139/120.100810
33. Uchanin, V. (2006) Eddy current methods of detection of defects in the zone of rivets of multilayer aircraft structures. Tekh. Diagnost. i Nerazrush. Kontrol, 2, 3-12 [in Russian].
34. Uchanin, V. (2020) Detection of the fatigue cracks initiated near the rivet holes by eddy current inspection techniques. Transactions on Aerospace Research, 1(258), 47-58. https://doi.org/10.2478/tar-2020-0010

Advertising in this issue: