2014 №01 (08) DOI of Article
2014 №01 (01)

The Paton Welding Journal 2014 #01
The Paton Welding Journal, 2014, #1, 55-60 pages  



E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute, NASU. 11 Bozhenko Str., 03680, Kiev, Ukraine. E-mail:
Tin bronzes find wide application in machine-building, metallurgy and other branches of industry. They are used for manufacture of parts operating under conditions of increased wear resistance by casting method. Welding and surfacing processes are used for production, as well as elimination of pouring spoilage and repair of parts from tin bronzes. This review gives an analysis of existing developments in area of current technological processes of welding and surfacing of tin bronzes, as well as new electrode and filler materials for these purposes. The main difficulties were considered appearing during application of welding processes, namely high porosity susceptibility (copper alloys are more susceptible), formation of solidification cracks in welds and HAZ, tin liquation, that results in structure inhomogeneity, as well as high susceptibility to hot crack formation in deposited bronze metal or steel during bronze on steel surfacing. Described are the methods of welding and surfacing of cast tin bronzes, among which argon-arc welding, submerged-arc welding and manual coated-electrode arc welding are the most widespread. It is shown that wires and strips from wrought alloys used as electrode and filler materials do not provide the necessary chemical composition of the deposited metal. Development of special flux-cored wires and coated electrodes, providing optimized metal alloying and receiving of necessary properties, is preferable. For example, welding consumables, chemical composition and properties of which would correspond to the base metal, are necessary for welding and surfacing of cast tin bronzes (BrO10F1, BrO5Ts5S5). A conclusion was made based on performed analysis about necessity of development of new consumables (coated electrodes, flux-cored wires) for welding and surfacing of bronzes of critical designation. 40 Ref., 4 Tables. 1 Figure.
Keywords: tin bronzes, electrode materials, methods of welding and surfacing, metallurgical peculiarities
Received:                16.10.13
Published:               28.01.14
1. Ponomarenko, O.I., Shinsky, I.O., Morgun, N.N. (2004) Casting on gasified models of bronze alloys. Litejn. Proizvodstvo, 11, 30.
2. Ponomarenko, O.I., Lysenko, T.V., Stanovsky, A.L. et al. (2012) Control of casting systems and processes: Monography. Kharkov: KhPI.
4. Makarevich, O.P., Fedorov, G.E., Platonov, E.O. (2005) Production of special steel casts. Kyiv: KPI.
5. Osintsev, O.E., Fedorov, V.N. (2004) Copper and copper alloys. National and foreign grades: Refer. Book. Moscow: Mashinostroenie.
6. Smiryagin, A.P., Smiryagina, N.A., Belova, A.V. (1974) Commercial non-ferrous metals and alloys: Refer. Book. Moscow: Metallurgiya.
7. Lebedev, K.P., Rajnes, L.S., Shemtov, G.S. et al. (1973) Cast bronzes. Leningrad: Mashinostroenie.
8. Dzhevaga, I.I. (1961) Electric arc welding of non-ferrous metals and alloys. Leningrad: Sudpromgiz.
9. Khmel, G.P., Krasnenko, E.G., Ilyushenko, V.M. et al. (1966) Surfacing of worn bronze parts of metallurgical equipment. Avtomatich. Svarka, 3, 68-71.
10. Redchits, V.V. (1991) Pore prevention in fusion welding of non-ferrous metals. Ibid., 6, 31-34.
11. Ilyushenko, V.M., Opanasenko, S.I., Fishkis, M.M. et al. (1966) Mechanized welding-up of cast defects in tin bronze. Ibid., 2, 64-66.
12. Dzhevaga, I.I., Zhuravlyov, Yu.A. (1965) Relation between structure and resistance of welds on bronze to solidification cracks. Ibid., 11, 14-19.
13. Simanenkov, L.N. (1981) Study and development of electric arc welding technology of tin bronze of Br.OTs10-2 grade: Syn. of Thesis for Cand. of Techn. Sci. Degree. Moscow.
14. Vajnerman, A.E., Osetkin, A.A. (1968) To problem of crack formation in surfacing of copper alloys on steel. Avtomatich. Svarka, 6, 23-25.
15. Timofeev, V.N., Isaev, N.I. (1965) Surfacing of copper alloys on steel surfaces. Ibid., 4, 34-37.
16. Ardentov, V.V., Vajnerman, A.E., Gajdaj, P.I. et al. Method of surfacing. USSR author's cert. 548391. Int. Cl. B23k 9/04. Fil. 05.08.1974. Publ. 28.02.1977.
17. Abramovich, V.R., Demyantsevich, V.P., Efimov, L.A. (1988) Fusion welding of copper and copper-based alloys. Leningrad: Mashinostroenie.
18. Hanke, H., Retzlaff, O., Schultz, H.-W. (1968) Schweissen von Gusszinbronze. Schweisstechnik, 2, 1-12.
19. Timofeev, A.I., Potakhin, V.P. (1967) Automatic surfacing of Br.AMts9-2 bronze with strip electrode on coating. Svarochn. Proizvodstvo, 10, 14-16.
20. Ilyushenko, V.M., Sedov, V.E. (1969) Surfacing of tin-lead bronze on steel with split electrode. Avtomatich. Svarka, 6, 52-54.
21. Ilyushenko, V.M. (1978) Advanced methods of arc surfacing copper alloys on steel. In: Welding and surfacing of heavy non-ferrous metals. Kiev: PWI, 30-32.
22. Ilyushenko, V.M., Sedov, V.E., Opanasenko, S.I. et al. Flux-cored wire for surfacing. USSR author's certificate 202391. Int. Cl. B23k. Fil. 03.01.1966. Publ. 14.09.1967.
23. Dzhevaga, I.I., Simanenkov, L.N. Composition of welding wire. USSR author's cert. 593868. Int. Cl. B23k 35/30. Fil. 18.10.1976. Publ. 25.02.1978.
24. Zaks, I.A. (1999) Electrodes for arc welding of non-ferrous metals and alloys: Refer. Book. St.-Petersburg: Strojizdat.
25. Gladky, P.V., Pereplyotchikov, E.F., Ryabtsev, I.A. (2007) Plasma surfacing. Kiev: Ekotekhnologiya.
26. Ilyushenko, V.M. (1977) Welding and surfacing of heavy non-ferrous metals. Kiev: Znanie.
32. (2004) UTP Schweissmaterial GmbH. Bad Krozingen.
33. (2005) Filler materials for manual and automatic welding: ESAB Welding Handbook. 4 ed. Goeteborg.
34. (2006) Kobe steel welding consumables: Catalog. Tokyo.
35. (2005) ASKANYAK welding electrodes and wire: Catalog of products. Istanbul.
36. Patskevich, I.R., Bautina, V.A. (1962) Vibrating electrode arc surfacing of bronze on steel. Svarochn. Proizvodstvo, 11, 43-45.
37. Dudko, D.A., Shcherbina, N.Ya., Podsatsky, V.V. (1979) Electroslag surfacing of copper and its alloys on steel using boiling fluxes. Avtomatich. Svarka, 2, 34-37.
38. Gvozdem, M.S. (1963) Welding-up of defects in casts of non-ferrous metals. Litejn. Proizvodstvo, 9, 42.
39. Potapievsky, A.G., Agarkov, L.A., Osadchenko, A.E. (1967) Mechanized pulsed-arc surfacing of bronze on steel items. Sudostroenie, 8, 46-50.
40. Pushkin, I.A. (2001) Some peculiarities of recovery of worn bronze bushings by spark surfacing. In: Abstr. of Ural Welding Conf. Nizhny Tagil: NTTI, 127-129.