2013 №08 (03) 2013 №08 (05)

The Paton Welding Journal 2013 #08
The Paton Welding Journal, 2013, #8, 25-30 pages  



E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute, NASU. 11 Bozhenko Str., 03680, Kiev, Ukraine. E-mail:
One of the most promising directions in the field of development of new metallic materials with a high level of heat resistance and thermal stability is development of intermetallic alloys of Ti-Al system. In the near future these alloys can create serious competition to nickel-based superalloys, as titanium aluminides are lighter and do not require expensive and deficit elements for alloying. In addition, they have a high corrosion resistance, high-temperature oxidation resistance, and also have a high modulus of elasticity and strength. Titanium aluminides can be successfully applied in the form of cast products, for instance of valves of super-power internal combustion engines; as high-temperature resistant coatings on gas turbine blades, exposed to high-temperature gas flows; as structural material operating at static loads and high temperatures. Wide industrial application of titanium aluminides is hindered by their low ductility at room temperature. This greatly complicates technological processing and slows down industrial application of the above alloys. Therefore, application of titanium aluminides in various-purpose structures is dependent on development of effective technologies of their processing, including welding. In this connection the purpose of this review is analysis of currently available developments of joining processes for titanium aluminide based materials by various kinds of welding. Analysis of published data given in the review showed that formation of welded joints with application of traditional welding processes based on local melting of material has several drawbacks, which can be eliminated at application of various solid-phase welding processes. Results given in the publications, are indicative of the good prospects for application of intermediate inserts for joining difficult-to-weld titanium aluminide based alloys. 36 Ref., 5 Figures.
Keywords: titanium aluminide, fusion welding, temperature, joining processes, pressure welding, structure, insert, weld, microstructure
Received:                01.03.13
Published:               28.08.13
1. Mukhin, V.S. (2007) Principles of technology of machine building (aircraft engine engineering). Ufa: UGATU.
2. Pavlinich, S.P., Zajtsev, M.V. (2011) Application of intermetallic titanium alloys in casting of assemblies of gas turbine engines and blades with lightened high strength structures for aircraft engines of new generations. Vest. Ufim. Gos. Aviats. Tekhn. Un-ta, 15(4), 200-202.
3. Ivanov, V.I., Yasinsky, K.K. (1996) Efficiency of application of heat resistant alloys based on Ti3Al and TiAl intermetallides for service at 600-800 °C temperatures in aircraft engineering. Tekhnol. Lyogk. Splavov, 3, 7-12, 93.
4. Lipsitt, H.A., Shechtman, D., Schafrik, R.E. (1975) The plastic deformation of TiAl. Met. Transact. A, 6, 1991-1998.
5. Froes, F.H., Suryanarayana, C., Eliezer, D. (1991) Production, characteristics and commercialization of titanium aluminides. ISIJ Int., 31(10), 1235-1248.
6. Polkin, I.S., Kolachev, B.A., Iliin, A.A. (1997) Titanium aluminides and alloys on their base. Tekhnol. Lyogk. Splavov, 3, 32-39.
7. Kazantseva, N.V., Grinberg, B.A., Gulyaeva, N.P. et al. (2003) Microstructure and plastic deformation of orthorhombic Ti2AlNb alloys II. Structure and phase transformations in strong deformation. Fiz. Metalla i Metallovedenie, 96(4), 23-32.
8. Kim, Y.-W., Dimiduk, D.M. (1991) Progress in the understanding of gamma titanium aluminides. JOM, 8, 40-47.
9. Bannykh, O.A., Povarova, K.B., Braslavskaya, G.S. et al. (1996) Mechanical properties of cast alloys g-TiAl. Metallovedenie i Term. Obrabotka Met., 4, 11-14.
10. Boggs Robert, N. (1989) Titanium aluminide true space-age material. Des. News, 45(12), 51-53.
11. Antashaev, V.G., Ivanov, V.I., Yasinsky, K.K. (1996) Development of technology for producing of cast parts from intermetallic alloy TiAl and their application in structures. Tekhn. Lyogk. Splavov, 3, 20-23.
12. Hino, H., Nisiyamo, Yu. (1990) Application of titanium aluminides. Metals Technol., 60(7), 70-76.
13. Arenas, M.F., Acoff, V.L. (2003) Analysis of gamma titanium aluminide welds produced by gas tungsten arc welding. Welding J., 5, 110-115.
14. Kelly, T. (1992) Repair welding of gamma titanium aluminide castings. In: Proc. of the 3rd Int. SAMPE Metals Conf. (Covina, 25-30 May 1992). Covina: SAMPE, 1992.
15. Bharani, D.J., Acoff, V.L. (1998) Autogenous gas tungsten arc weldability of cast alloy Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb (atomic percent) versus extruded alloy Ti-46Al-2Cr-2Nb-0.9Mo (atomic percent). Met. and Mater. Transact. A, 29(13), 927-935.
16. Patterson, R.A. et al. (1990) Titanium aluminide : electron beam weldability. Welding J., 1, 39-44.
17. Jensen, C.M., Zhang, H., Baeslack, W.A. et al. (1998) The effect of postweld heat treatment on the structure and properties of electron beam welded Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy. In: Abstr. of Papers of 79th AWS Annual Meeting (Miami, AWS).
18. Kharchenko, G.K., Ustinov, A.I., Falchenko, Yu.V. et al. (2001) Choice of preheating temperature of g-aluminide titanium in EBW. The Paton Welding J., 11, 20-23.
19. Yushtin, A.N., Zamkov, V.N., Sabokar, V.K. et al. (2001) et al. (2001) Pressure welding of intermetallic alloy g-TiAl. Ibid., 1, 33-37.
20. Zamkov, V.N., Markashova, L.I., Kireev, L.S. (1992) Peculiarities of structural changes of heat resistant alloy based on Ti3Al in vacuum pressure welding. Avtomatich. Svarka, 9/10, 13-16.
21. Baeslack, W., Threadgill, P., Nicholas, E. (1992) Linear friction welding of alpha-two titanium aluminide. TWI Research Report, 442, 204-210.
22. Miyashita, T., Hino, H. (1994) Friction welding characteristics of TiAl intermetallic compound. J. Japan Inst. Metals, 58(2), 215-220.
23. Baeslack, W., Threadgill, P., Nicholas, E. et al. (1995) Linear friction welding of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb (at.%) titanium aluminide. In: Proc. of the 8th World Conf. on Titanium (Birmingham, 22-26 Oct. 1995). Birmingham: Inst. of Materials, 1995.
24. Kuchuk-Yatsenko, S.I., Zyakhor, I.V. (2009) Specifics of friction welding of titanium aluminides. In: Proc. of 9th Math. Annual Int. Conf. on Efficiency of Implementation of Scientific, Resource and Industrial Potential in Current Conditions (Slavskoe, 9-13 February 2009). Kiev: UIC Science. Technique. Technology, 2009.
25. Zyakhor, I.V., Kuchuk-Yatsenko, S.I., Ustinov, A.I. (2009) Application of nanolayered foil of Ti-Al system in friction welding of titanium aluminide based alloys. In: Proc. of Conf. on Slavic Lectures (Lipetsk, 4-5 June 2009). Lipetsk: LGTU, 2009.
26. Zyakhor, I.V., Kuchuk-Yatsenko, S.I. (2009) Structure of titanium aluminide compounds in friction welding using nanolayered foil of Ti-Al system. In: Proc. of 8th All-Russ. Sci.-Techn. Conf. with Internat. Participation (Moscow, 30 November-1 December, 2009). Moscow: MATI, 2009.
27. Cam, G., Bohm, K.-H., Kocak, M. (1999) Diffusionsschweissen feingegossener Titanaluminide. Schweissen und Schneiden, 8, 470-475.
28. Ustinov, A.I., Falchenko, Yu.V., Ishchenko, A.Ya. et al. (2009) Producing permanent joints of g-TiAl based alloys using nanolayered Ti/Al interlayer by vacuum diffusion welding. The Paton Welding J., 1, 12-15.
29. Duarte, L.I., Ramos, A.S., Viera, M.F. et al. (2006) Solid-state diffusion bonding of gamma-TiAl alloys using Ti/Al thin films as interlayers. Intermetallics, 14, 1151-1156.
30. Ramos, A.S., Viera, M.T., Duarte, L.I. et al. (2006) Nanometric multilayers : A new approach for joining TiAl. Ibid., 14, 1157-1162.
31. Yan, R., Somekh, R.E., Wallach, E.R. (1992) Solid-state bonding of TiAl with interlayers. In: Proc. of the 3rd Int. Conf. on Trends in Welding Research (Gattinburg, Tennessee, USA, 1-5 June, 1992). Ohio: ASM International, MaterialsPark, 1992.
32. Kharchenko, G.K., Ustinov, A.I., Falchenko, Yu.V. et al. (2011) Diffusion bonding of g-TiAl base alloy in vacuum by using nanolayered interlayers. The Paton Welding J., 3, 2-6.
33. Ustinov, A.I., Olikhovskaya, L.A., Melnichenko, T.V. et al. (2008) Solid phase reactions in heating of multilayer Al/Ti foils produced by electron beam deposition method. Advances in Electrometallurgy, 2, 19-26.
34. Kuchuk-Yatsenko, S.I., Shvets, V.I., Sakhatsky, A.G. et al. (2009) Features of resistance welding of titanium aluminides using nanolayered aluminium-titanium foils. Ibid., 3, 11-14.
35. Kochergin, A.K. (1987) Resistance welding. Leningrad: Mashinostroenie.
36. Kuchuk-Yatsenko, V.S., Shvets, V.I., Sakhatsky, A.G. et al. (2007) Specifics of resistance butt welding of aluminium alloys by using nanostructural aluminium-nickel and aluminium-copper foils. Svarochn. Proizvodstvo, 9, 12-14.