The Paton Welding Journal, 2015, #1, 2-10 pages
MODELING OF HEAT PROCESSES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF STRUCTURE OF METALS AND ALLOYS BY FRICTION STIR METHOD
A.L. Majstrenko1, V.M. Nesterenkov2, V.A. Dutka1, V.A. Lukash1, S.V. Zabolotny1 And V.N. Tkach1
V.N. Bakul Institute for Superhard Materials, NASU. 2 Avtozavodskaya Str., 04074, Kiev, Ukraine. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute, NASU. 11 Bozhenko Str., 03680, Kiev, Ukraine. E-mail: email@example.com
Developed was a computer model of temperature field in tool and parts in process of their friction stir welding. Modeling of the temperature field was carried out for both successive stages of welding process, i.e. plunging of pin of tool operating element into part (1st stage) and progressive motion of plunged pin in part (2nd stage). The mathematical model represents itself a nonlinear equation of transient heat conduction, which takes into account progressive pin movement during the 2nd stage of welding. Two constituents describe the heat sources, appearing in welding. The first one considers power of heat sources, caused by friction of tool with parts on contact surfaces, the second one takes into account heat generation, promoted by mechanical deformation of part material. Mathematical modeling and experimental examination of temperature field were carried out for tool from cubic boron nitride (cubonit) and hard alloy as well as copper parts during FSW. Adequacy of developed model was determined based on correlation of numerical and experimental results. It is shown that application of superhard materials (cubonit and hard alloy) for manufacture of tool operating elements gives a possibility to provide thermo-mechanical resistance of tool during welding. A possibility is also shown for increase of strength of welded joints of parts from magnesium alloy ML10, gained as a result of application of FSP for modifying of structure of surface layers in parts to be welded with their further electron beam welding. 27 Ref., 1 Table, 14 Figures.
mathematical modeling, friction stir welding, temperature field, tools from superhard materials, structure modification, electron beam welding
1. Thomas, W.M., Nicholas, E.D., Needham, J.C. et al. Friction stir butt welding. Int. pat. PCT/GB92/02203; Pat 9125978.8 GB; Pat. 5,460,317 US. Publ. Dec. 1991.
2. Shtrikman, M.M. (2007) State-of-the-art and development of friction welding process of linear joints (Review). Svarochn. Proizvodstvo, 10, 25-32.
3. Zelenin, V.I., Poleshchuk, M.A., Zelenin, E.V. et al. (2010) Repair of copper mold plates for steel continuous casting by method of friction stir surfacing. In: Rock cutting and metal-working tools: Technique and technology of its fabrication and application, Issue 13, 476-479.
4. Backer, J.D., Bolmsjo, G., Christiansson, A.K. (2014) Temperature control of robotic friction stir welding using the thermoelectric effect. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 70, 375-383. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-013-5279-0
5. Ding, R.J., Oeigoetz, P.A. Auto-adjustable pin tool for friction stir welding. Pat. 005893507A US. Publ. Apr. 13, 1999.
6. (2007) Friction stir welding and processing. Ed. by R.S. Mishra, M.W. Mahoney. ASM Int. www.asminternational.org.
7. Rai, R., De, A., Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H. et al. (2011) Review: Friction stir welding tools. Sci. and Technol. of Welding and Joining, 16(4), 325-342. https://doi.org/10.1179/1362171811Y.0000000023
8. Steel, R.J., Peterson, J., Sanderson, S. et al. (2012) Friction stir welding of 20 mm thickness 1018 steels. In: Proc. of 22nd Int. Offshore and Polar Engineering Conf. (Rhodes, Greece, June 17-22, 2012), 238-243.
9. Buffa, G., Fratini, L., Shivpuri, R. (2008) Finite element studies on friction stir welding process of tailored blanks. Computers and Structures, 86, 181-189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruc.2007.04.007
10. Nandan, R., Roy, G.G., Lienert, T.J. et al. (2007) Three-dimensional heat and material flow during friction stir welding of mild steel. Acta Materialia, 55, 883-895. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2006.09.009
11. Threadgill, P.L., Leonard, A.J., Shercliff, H.R. et al. (2009) Friction stir welding of aluminium alloys. Int. Mater. Rev., 54(2), 49-93. https://doi.org/10.1179/174328009X411136
12. Kumbhar, N.T., Bhanumurthy, K. (2008) Friction stir welding of Al6061 alloy. Asian J. Exp. Sci., 22(2), 63-74.
13. Carron, D., Bastid, P., Yin, Y. et al. (2010) Modelling of precipitation during friction stir welding of an Al-Mg-Si alloy. Tech. Mechanik, 30(1-3), 29-44.
14. Bastier, A., Maitournam, M.H., van Dang, K. et al. (2006) Steady state thermomechanical modeling of friction stir welding. Sci. and Technol. of Welding and Joining, 11, 278-288. https://doi.org/10.1179/174329306X102093
15. Yakimov, A.V., Slobodyanik, P.T., Usov, A.V. (1991) Thermal physics of mechanical treatment. Kiev; Odessa: Lybid.
16. Nandan, R., DebRoy, T., Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H. (2008) Recent advances in friction stir welding - Process, weldment structure and properties. Progress in Materials Sci., 53, 980-1023. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2008.05.001
17. Majstrenko, A.L., Dutka, V.A., Pereyaslov, V.P. et al. (1999) Mathematical modeling of thermal state of technological assembly unit elements during process of high-speed electric sintering of diamond-containing composite materials. Sverkhtv. Materialy, 4, 26-35.
18. Shulzhenko, A.A., Bozhko, S.A., Sokolov, A.N. et al. (1993) Synthesis, sintering and properties of cubic boron nitride. Kiev: Naukova Dumka.
19. Vargaftik, N.B. (1956) Thermophysical properties of materials: Refer. Book. Moscow; Leningrad: Tekhnoenergoizdat.
20. (1958) Reference book on steels and methods of their tests. Ed. by V.K. Grigorovich. Moscow: Metallurgizdat.
21. Tumanov, V.I. (1971) Properties of alloys of tungsten carbide-cobalt system. Moscow: Metallurgiya.
23. (1976) Tables of physical values: Refer. Book. Ed. by I.K. Kikoin. Moscow: Atomizdat.
24. (1982) Heat and mass exchange. Thermotechnical experiment: Refer. Book. Ed. by V.A. Grigoriev, V.I. Zorin. Moscow: Energoizdat.
25. Uyyuru, R.K., Kailas, S.V. (2006) Numerical analysis of friction stir welding process. J. Materials Eng. and Performance, 15(5), 505-518. https://doi.org/10.1361/105994906X136070
26. Buffa, G., Fratini, L., Micari, F. et al. (2012) On the choice of tool material in friction stir welding of titanium alloys. Proc. of NAMRI/SME, 40, 1-10.
27. Lavrinenko, V.I., Smokvina, V.V., Solod, V.Yu. (2013) Peculiarities of morphology of cubic boron nitride powders and their directed application in polishing tools. Such. Tekhnol. v Mashynobuduvanni, Issue 8, 56-65.