2023 №04 (04) DOI of Article
2023 №04 (06)

The Paton Welding Journal 2023 #04
The Paton Welding Journal, 2023, #4, 35-44 pages

Production, properties and prospects of application of modern magnesium alloys

V.A. Kostin, Yu.V. Falchenko, A.L. Puzrin, A.O. Makhnenko

E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute of the NAS of Ukraine 11 Kazymyr Malevych Str., 03150, Kyiv, Ukraine. E-mail:

A literature review of the current state of magnesium alloy production technology is given, alloy properties and the influence of alloying elements on them are analyzed, microstructure and the main phases forming in the cast and wrought magnesium alloys are determined, a classification of modern magnesium alloys of foreign production is presented, further paths of their development are outlined, and problems in magnesium alloy application are defined. Magnesium alloying by other elements (Al, Mn, Zn, Si, Re, etc.) or strong nanoparticles allows significant improvement of its existing properties so as to expand its scope of application. Current problems in magnesium alloy application (flammability, combustibility, surface durability, biosolubility, corrosion resistance, weldability) are solved by alloying, controlling the chemical and structural-phase composition, application of the respective modes of thermomechanical treatment and surface hardening. Ref. 27, Tabl. 2, Fig. 9.
Keywords: electrolysis, metal-ceramic restoration; Bunsen and Pidgeon processes; cast and wrought magnesium alloys; corrosion; biocompatibility; biodegradation

Received: 26.09.2022
Accepted: 25.05.2023


1. Junxiu Chen, Lili Tan, Xiaoming Yu et al. (2018) Mechanical properties of magnesium alloys for medical application. J. of Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 87, 68-79.
2. Radha, R., Sreekanth, D. (2017) Insight of magnesium alloys and composites for orthopedic implant applications. J. of Magnesium and Alloys, 5(3), 286-312.
3. Yan Yang, Xiaoming Xiong, Jing Chen et al. (2021) Research advances in magnesium and magnesium alloys worldwide in 2020. Ibid., 9(3), 705-747.
4. Dobrza'nski, L.A. (2019) The importance of magnesium and its alloys in modern technology and methods of shaping their structure and properties. Magnesium and its alloys. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 1-28.
5. Song, G.L., Atrens, A. (1999) Corrosion mechanisms of magnesium alloys. Adv. Eng. Mater., 1, 11-33.<11::AID-ADEM11>3.0.CO;2-N
6. Dieringa, H.; Stjohn, D.; Prado, M.T.P.; Kainer, K. (2021) Latest Developments in the field of magnesium alloys and their applications. Front. Mater., 8(July), 1-3.
7. Polmear, I.J. (1994) Magnesium alloys and applications. Mater. Sci. Technol., 10, 1-16.
8. Tae-Hyuk Lee, Toru H. Okabe, Jin-Young Lee et al. (2021) Development of a novel electrolytic process for producing high-purity magnesium metal from magnesium oxide using a liquid tin cathode. J. of Magnesium and Alloys, 9(5), 1644-1655.
9. (2001) U.S. Geological Survey. 01-341, Magnesium, Its Alloys and Compounds.
10. Gao, F., Nie, Z.-R., Wang, Z.-H. et al. (2008) Assessing environmental impact of magnesium production using pidgeon process in China. Transact. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 18, 749-754.
11. Durlach, J. (2006) Overview of magnesium research: History and current trends. New Perspectives in Magnesium Research. Springer, London, UK, 3-10.
12. Holywell, G.C. (2005) Magnesium: The first quarter millennium. JOM, 57, 26-33.
13. Yang Tian, Lipeng Wang, Bin Yang et al. (2022) Comparative evaluation of energy and resource consumption for vacuum carbothermal reduction and Pidgeon process used in magnesium production. J. of Magnesium and Alloys, 10(3), 697-706.
14. Hamed Abedini Najafabadi, Nesrin Ozalp, Michael Epstein, Richard Davis (2020) Solar carbothermic reduction of dolomite: direct method for production of magnesium and calcium. industrial & engineering Chemistry Research, 59(33), 14717-14728.
15. Mendis, C.L., Singh, A. (2013) Magnesium recycling: To the grave and beyond. JOM, 65, 1283-1284.
16. Karunakaran, R., Ortgies, S., Tamayol, A. et al. (2020) Additive manufacturing of magnesium alloys. Bioact. Mater., 5, 44-54.
17. Davim, J.P. (2020) Additive and subtractive manufacturing: Emergent technologies. De Gruyter, Berlin, Germany.
18. Kulekci, M.K. (2008) Magnesium and its alloys applications in automotive industry. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 39, 851-865.
19. Abbott, T. Casting Technologies, Microstructure and Properties. Magnesium and its Alloys. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2019, 29-45.
20. Fujisawa, S., Yonezu, A. (2014) Mechanical property of microstructure in die-cast magnesium alloy evaluated by indentation testing at elevated temperature. Proc. of Int. Congress on Recent Advances in Structural Integrity Analysis (Apcf/ Sif-2014). Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 422-426.
21. Gupta, M., Wong, W.L.E. (2015) Magnesium-based nanocomposites. Lightweight materials of the future. Mater. Charact., 105, 30-46.
22. Moosbrugger, C., Marquard, L. (2017) Engineering properties of magnesium alloys. ASM International, Materials Park, OH, USA.
23. Krishnan K. Sankaran, Rajiv S. Mishra (2017) Chapt. 7. Magnesium alloys. Metallurgy and design of alloys with hierarchical microstructures. Elsevier, 345-383.
24. Jeal, N. (2005) High-performance magnesium. Advanced Materials & Processes, 9, 65-67.
25. Tekumalla, S., Gupta, M. (2020) Introductory chapter: An insight into fascinating potential of magnesium. In: Magnesium - the wonder element for engineering/biomedical applications. IntechOpen, London, UK.
26. Luthringer, B.J.C., Feyerabend, F., Willumeit-Römer, R. (2014) Magnesium-based implants: A mini-review. Magnes. Res., 27, 142-154.
27. Zeng, R.-C., Yin, Z.-Z., Chen, X.-B., Xu, D.-K. (2018) Corrosion types of magnesium alloys. Magnesium Alloys - Selected Issue. IntechOpen, London, UK.