2010 №04 (11) 2010 №04 (02)

The Paton Welding Journal 2010 #04
TPWJ, 2010, #4, 2-6 pages

Journal                    The Paton Welding Journal
Publisher                 International Association «Welding»
ISSN                       0957-798X (print)
Issue                       № 4, 2010 (April)
Pages                       2-6

NTUU «Kiev Polytechnic Institute», Kiev, Ukraine
The paper gives terminological analysis of the phenomenon of subsolidus cracking in welding. Structural and technological factors affecting subsolidus crack formation in welding of various materials with fcc-structure of the crystalline lattice are considered. The need for generalizing the current concepts on this issue with application of modern physical models from the field of dislocation theory of plastic deformation and brittle fracture mechanisms at high-temperature creep is noted.
Keywords: fusion welding, subsolidus cracks, austenitic steels, nickel, aluminium, copper alloys, terminological analysis
Received:                ??.??.??
Published:                28.04.10
1. Hemsworth, B., Boniszewski, T., Eaton, N.F. (1969) Classification and definition of high temperature welding cracks in alloys. Metal Const. and British Welding J., 2, 5-16.
2. Shorshorov, M.Kh., Erokhin, A.A., Chernyshova, T.A. (1973) Hot cracks in welding of heat-resistant alloys. Moscow: Mashinostroenie.
3. Nissley, N.E., Lippold, J.C. (2003) Ductility-dip cracking susceptibility of austenitic alloys. In: Proc. of 6th Int. Conf. on Trends in Welding Research (15-19 April, 2002, Pine Mountain). ASM Int., 64-69.
4. Lippold, J.C., Nissley, N.E. (2007) Further investigations of ductility-dip cracking in high chromium Ni-base filler metals. Welding in the World, 51(9/10), 24-30.
5. Lancaster, J.F. (1993) Metallurgy of welding. London: Chapman & Hall.
6. Prokhorov, N.N. (1956) Problem of strength of metals in welding during crystallization process. Svarochn. Proizvodstvo, 6, 5-11.
7. Prokhorov, N.N. (1958) Strength of metals in welding. In: Proc. of All-Union Sci.-Techn. Meeting on Problems of Welding. Ed. by K.V. Lyubavsky. Moscow.
8. Bochvar, A.A., Rykalin, N.N., Prokhorov, N.N. et al. (1960) To problem of «hot» (crystallization) cracks. Svarochn. Proizvodstvo, 10, 3-4.
9. Prokhorov, N.N. (1962) Technological strength of metals during crystallization process in welding. Ibid., 4, 1-5.
10. Rykalin, N.N., Prokhorov, N.N., Shorshorov, M.Kh. et al. (1971) State-of-the-art and tasks in development of technological strength during crystallization process in welding. Ibid., 6, 3-5.
11. Prokhorov, N.N. (1979) Technological strength of welds during crystallization process. Moscow: Metallurgiya.
12. Bengough, G.D. (1912) A study of the properties of alloys at high temperatures. Institute of Metals, 7, 123-174.
13. Yenisavich, W.A. (1966) Correlation of Ni-Cr-Fe alloy weld metal fissuring with hot ductility behavior. Welding J., 8, 344-356.
14. Dzugutov, M.Ya. (1971) Plastic deformation of high-alloy steels and alloys. Moscow: Metallurgiya.
15. Matsuda, F., Nakagawa, H. (1977) Some fractographic features of various weld cracking and fracture surfaces with scanning electron microscope. Report 1: Studies on fractography of welded zone. Transact. of JWRI, 6(1), 81-90.
16. Matsuda, F., Nakagawa, H., Ogata, S. et al. (1978) Fractographic investigation on solidification crack in the varestraint test of fully austenitic stainless steel. Pt 3: Studies on fractography of welded zone. Ibid., 7(1), 59-70.
17. Nissley, N.E., Lippold, J.C. (2003) Development of the strain-to-fracture test. Welding J., 82(12), 355-364.
18. Lippold, J.C., Kotecki, D.J. (2005) Welding metallurgy and weldability of stainless steels. John Willey & Sons.
19. Yushchenko, K.A., Lipodaev, V.N., Belchuk, M.V. et al. (1986) Resistance of welded joints of heat-resistant alloy of Hastelloy H type to hot cracking. Avtomatich. Svarka, 9, 10-12.
20. Bagdasarov, Yu.S., Yakushin, B.F. (1991) Effect of microchemical heterogeneity on near-weld cracking of nickel alloy welded joints in dispersion solidification. Svarochn. Proizvodstvo, 8, 37-40.
21. Collins, M.G., Lippold, J.C., Kikel, J.M. (2002) Quantifying ductility-dip cracking susceptibility in nickel-base weld metals using the strain-to-fracture test. In: Proc. of 6th Int. Conf. on Trends in Welding Research (15-19 April, 2002, Pine Mountain). ASM Int., 586-590.
22. Ramirez, A.J., Lippold, J.C. (2004) High-temperature behaviour of Ni-base weld metal. Pt 2: Insight into the mechanism for ductility-dip cracking. Materials Sci. and Eng. A, 380, 245-258.
23. Dave, K., Cola, M.J., Kumar, M. (2004) Grain boundary character in alloy 690 and ductility-dip cracking susceptibility. Welding J., 83(1), 1-5.
24. Yushchenko, K.A., Savchenko, V.S., Chervyakova, L.V. et al. (2005) Investigation of weldability of nickel superalloys and development of repair technology for gas turbine blades. The Paton Welding J., 6, 2-5.
25. Horikawa, K., Kuramoto, S., Kauno, M. (2000) Sources of a trace amount of sodium, and its effect on hot ductility of an Al-5 mass % Mg alloy. Light Metals Review, 7, 18-23.
26. Wilken, K., Bauer, S. (1998) Eignung von MVT- und PVRVersuch zur Bestimmung der Mikrorissanfaelligkeit. Schweissen und Schneiden, 50(3), 160-165.
27. Stepanov, V.V., Chernyshova, T.A., Shevelev, V.V. (1975) About intergranular sliding in welding of platinum alloys and local intercrystalline fractures in near-weld zone. Svarochn. Proizvodstvo, 8, 1-3.
28. Ozgowicz, W. (2005) The relationship between hot ductility and intergranular fracture in an CuSn6P alloy at elevated temperatures. In: Proc. of 13th Int. Sci. Conf. on Achievements in Mechanical and Material Eng. (16-19 May, 2005, Gliwice-Wisla), 503-508.
29. Kazennov, Yu.I., Stepankov, V.N., Protsenko, L.N. (1982) Recrystallization and fine structure of near-weld zone of welded joints of austenitic sheet steel. Svarochn. Proizvodstvo, 5, 7-9.
30. Noecker, II F.F., DuPont, J.N. (2009) Metallurgical investigation into ductility dip cracking in Ni-based alloys. Pt 2: Microstructural and microchemical development is characterized during simulated weld reheat thermal cycle and correlated to ductility dip cracking susceptibility. Welding J., 88(3), 62-77.
31. Collins, M.G., Ramirez, A.J., Lippold, J.C. (2004) An investigation of ductility dip cracking in nickel-based filler materials. Pt 3: The characteristics of weld metal grain boundaries associated with elevated-temperature fracture are investigated. Ibid., 83(2), 39-49.
32. Nakao, Y., Shinozaki, K., Ogawa, T. et al. (1993) Effect of Cr and S on ductility-dip cracking susceptibilities in the reheated weld metals of Ni-Cr-Fe ternary alloys. Pt 2: Study on microcracks in multipass weld metals of Ni-base alloys. Transact. of JWS, 24(2), 101-106.
33. Kazennov, Yu.I., Reviznikov, L.I. (1978) Effect of additive and alloying elements on weldability of steel with stably austenitic structure. Svarochn. Proizvodstvo, 11, 29-32.
34. Yushchenko, K.A., Starushchenko, T.M. (1981) Role of oxygen in crack formation during welding of invar. Avtomatich. Svarka, 8, 21-24.
35. Yushchenko, K.A., Savchenko, V.S. (2008) Classification and mechanism of cracking in welding high-alloy steels and nickel alloys in brittle temperature ranges. In: Hot cracking phenomena in welds II. Ed. by Th. Bollinghaus et al. Berlin; Heidelberg: Springer, 147-170.
36. Shorshorov, M.Kh., Chernyshova, T.A., Loseva, G.I. (1973) On migration of grain boundaries and intergranular sliding in weld metal of nickel alloy welded joints. Svarochn. Proizvodstvo, 4, 6-8.
37. Quadrini, E., Mengucci, P. (1992) Influence of microstructure on the hydrogen embrittlement of Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr alloys. J. Mater. Sci., 27, 1391-1396.
38. Hicks, P.D., Altstetter, C.J. (1992) Hydrogen-enhanced cracking of superalloys. Metall. Transact. A, 23, 237-249.
39. Symons, D.M. (1997) Hydrogen embrittlement of Ni-Cr-Fe alloys. Ibid., 28, 655-663.
40. Lynch, S.P. (1986) A fractographic study of hydrogen-assisted cracking and liquid-metal embrittlement in nickel. J. Mater. Sci., 21, 692-704.
41. Collins, M.G., Lippold, J.C. (2003) An investigation of ductility dip cracking in nickel-based filler materials. Pt 1: The strain-to-fracture test has been used to develop temperature-strain relationship for ductility dip cracking. Welding J., 82(10), 288-295.
42. Collins, M.G., Ramirez, A.J., Lippold, J.C. (2003) An investigation of ductility dip cracking in nickel-based filler materials. Pt 2: Fracture behavior and fracture surface morphology are related to microstructure, composition and temperature. Ibid., 2(12), 348-354.
43. (1979) Welding in machine-building: Refer. Book. Vol. 3. Ed. by V.A. Vinokurov. Moscow: Mashinostroenie.
44. Yakushin, B.F. (1981) State-of-the-art and problems of hot cracks in welded joints. In: Proc. of 1st Symp. on Cracks in Welded Joints of Steels (13-17 April, 1981, ChSSR). Moscow: N.E. Bauman MVTU, 22-36.
45. Sorokin, L.I., Tupikin, V.I. (1985) Classification of heat-resistant nickel alloys by their resistance to cracking in heat treatment of welded joints. Avtomatich. Svarka, 5, 23-25.
46. Sorokin, L.I. (2004) Weldability of heat-resistant nickel alloys (Review). Pt 2. Svarochn. Proizvodstvo, 5, 23-25.
47. Young, G.A., Capobianco, T.E., Penik, M.A. et al. (2008) The mechanism of ductility dip cracking in nickel-chromium alloys. Welding J., 87(2), 31-43.
48. Noecker, II F.F., DuPont, J.N. (2009) Metallurgical investigation into ductility dip cracking in Ni-based alloys. Pt 1: Quantifying cracking susceptibility during the first thermal cycle using the Gleeble(r) hot ductility test. Ibid., 88(1), 7-20.
49. Slivinsky, A.A., Veit, P. (2003) Structure and properties of welded joints of nickel based heat-resistant alloy. The Paton Welding J., 5, 6-12.
50. Yushchenko, K.A., Savchenko, V.S., Chervyakov, N.O. et al. (2004) Character of formation of hot cracks in welding cast heat-resistant nickel alloys. Ibid., 8, 35-40.
51. Aoh, J.N., Yang, C.H. (2003) Cracking susceptibility study of Inconel 600 alloy using Varestraint and hot ductility test. In: Proc. of 6th Int. Conf. on Trends in Welding Research (15-19 April, 2002, Pine Mountain). ASM Int., 597-602.
52. Bagdasarov, Yu.S., Sorokin, L.I., Yakushin, B.F. et al. (1983) Influence of technological procedures on resistance of welded joints of nickel alloys to crack formation in heat treatment. Svarochn. Proizvodstvo, 4, 23-26.
53. Mnushkin, O.S., Potapov, B.V., Kopelman, L.A. et al. (1974) About influence of temporary deformations on decrease of resistance of near-weld zone to local fractures. Ibid., 2, 1-3.