Позорная война рф против Украины

Начата 20 февраля 2014 и полномасштабно продолжена 24 февраля 2022 года. С первых же минут рф ведет ее с нарушением законов и правил войны, захватывает атомные станции, уничтожает бомбардировками мирное население и объекты критической инфраструктуры. Правители и армия рф - военные преступники. Все, кто платит им налоги или оказывают какую-либо поддержку - пособники терроризма. Народ Украины вас никогда не простит и ничего не забудет.

2018 №04 (02) DOI of Article
2018 №04 (04)

The Paton Welding Journal 2018 #04
TPWJ, 2018, #4, 14-18 pages
Peculiarities of flash-butt welding of rail frogs with rail ends

Journal                    The Paton Welding Journal
Publisher                 International Association «Welding»
ISSN                      0957-798X (print)
Issue                       #4, 2018 (April)
Pages                      14-18
A.V. Kavunichenko, V.I. Shvets and E.V. Antipin
E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute of the NAS of Ukraine 11 Kazimir Malevich Str., 03150, Kyiv, Ukraine. E-mail: office@paton.kiev.ua
Producing of quality welded joints of rail frogs of steel 110G13L with rail ends without an intermediate insert is still an urgent problem. The results of investigations of formation of welded joints of rail steel M76 with steel 110G13L made by the flash-butt welding without an austenitic insert. are presented. It was shown that in the near-contact layer of rail steel, the high-alloy unstable austenite, fringed with carbides, is formed. It was established that localization of internal stresses and the presence of embrittling structures are the cause of a low deflection at the required fracture force of welded joints. 7 Ref., 2 Tables, 9 Figures.
Keywords: flash-butt welding, steel 110G13L, rail steel M76, microstructure, heat treatment, nonmetallic inclusions, internal stresses, mechanical properties, carbides, unstable austenite
Received:                14.03.18
Published:               11.04.18
  1. Kuchuk-Yatsenko, S.I., Shvets, V.I., Gordan, G.N. et al. (2006) Features of formation of structure of joints of rail steel M76 to steel 110G13L made by flash-butt welding. The Paton Welding J., 1, 2–8.
  2. Kuchuk-Yatsenko, S.I., Shvets, Yu.V., Dumchev, E.A. et al. (2005) Flash-butt welding of railway frogs with rail ends using an intermediate insert. , 1, 2–4.
  3. Kuchuk-Yatsenko, S.I., Didkovsky, O.V., Bogorsky, M.V. et al. (2002) Method of flash-butt welding. Ukraine, Pat. 46820. Int. Cl. B23K 11/04 [in Ukrainian].
  4. Gruzin, P.L., Grigorkin, V.I., Moskaleva, L.N., Mural, V.V. (1969) Transformations in austenitic manganese steel. Metallovedenie i Termich. Metallov, 1, 5–9 [in Russian].
  5. Tkachenko, F.K., Efremenko, V.G. (1990) Structure and phase transformations in wrought high-manganese steel. Ibid., 2, 8–10 [in Russian].
  6. (2006) TU U 27.3-26524137-1342:2006: Frogs and cores with welded-up rail ends of R65, R50 and UIC60 types. Specification [in Ukrainian].
  7. (2012) DIN EN 14587-3:2012: Railway applications — Track-flash butt welding of rails. Pt 3: Welding in association with crossing construction.