Eng
Ukr
Rus
Print
2019 №05 (05) DOI of Article
10.15407/tpwj2019.05.01
2019 №05 (02)

The Paton Welding Journal 2019 #05
TPWJ, 2019, #5, 2-12 pages
 
Journal                    The Paton Welding Journal
Publisher                 International Association «Welding»
ISSN                      0957-798X (print)
Issue                       #5, 2019 (May)
Pages                      2-12
 
Effect of current and arc length on characteristics of arc discharge in nonconsumable electrode welding

I.V. Krivtsun, V.F. Demchenko, I.V. Krikent, D.V. Kovalenko and I.V. Kovalenko
E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute of the NAS of Ukraine 11 Kazimir Malevich Str., 03150, Kyiv, Ukraine. E-mail: office@paton.kiev.ua

The method of mathematical modeling was used for investigation of the effect of current and length of atmospheric pressure argon arc with refractory (tungsten) cathode on heat, electromagnetic and gas-dynamic characteristics of arc plasma, including the characteristics of its thermal, electric and dynamic (force) impact on the anode surface. A short review of the mathematical models used for this purpose is given. The temperature fields and patterns of current flow in the arc column are illustrated with corresponding isotherms and current lines. Analysis of force effect of arc current on its column plasma is based on calculation data on distribution of magnetic pressure in arc plasma and corresponding magnetic force acting on plasma. Peculiarities of distribution of total pressure and velocity of plasma movement in the arc column are also analyzed. The calculation data are given on distribution of density of electric current and heat flow on the surface of water-cooled and evaporating anode, as well as on distribution of plasma potential along the boundary of anode layer depending on current and arc length. The concepts of effective values of anode and cathode potential drop are introduced. Proceeding from the calculation value of heat flow into the anode and experimental watt-ampere characteristic of an argon arc with a refractory cathode, the data were obtained on the value of effective efficiency of such an arc in the current range of 50–300 A for an arc of 1.5; 2 and 3 mm length. Dependence of the dimensions of current channel and zone of thermal impact of the arc on the anode on current value and arc length was determined. 26 Ref., 22 Figures.
Keywords: arc with refractory cathode, arc current, arc length, arc plasma, arc column, anode layer, anode current density, anode heat flow, mathematical modeling
 
 
Received:                15.03.19
Published:               30.05.19
 
 

References

1. Hsu, K.C., Etemadi, K., Pfender, E. (1983) Study of the free-burning high-intensity argon arc. J. of Appl. Phys., 54, 3, 1293-1301. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.332195
2. Hsu, K.C., Pfender, E. (1983) Two-temperature modeling of the free-burning high-intensity arc. Ibid., 54, 8, 4359-4366. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.332672
3. Lowke, J.J., Morrow, R., Haidar, J. (1997) A simplified unified theory of arcs and their electrodes. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 30, 2033-2042. https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/30/14/011
4. Haidar, J. (1999) Non-equilibrium modeling of transferred arcs. Ibid, 32, 263-272. https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/32/3/014
5. Sansonnets, L., Haidar, J., Lowke, J.J. (2000) Prediction of properties of free burning arcs including effects of ambipolar diffusion. Ibid., 33, 148-157. https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/33/2/309
6. Masquere, M., Freton, P., Gonzalez, J.J. (2007) Theoretical study in two dimensions of the energy transfer between an electric arc and an anode material. Ibid., 40, 432-446. https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/40/2/020
7. Tanaka, M., Yamamoto, K., Tashiro, S. et al. (2008) Metal vapour behaviour in gas tungsten arc thermal plasma during welding. Welding in the World, 52(11-12), 82-88. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03266686
8. Dinulescu, H.A., Pfender, E. (1980) Analysis of the anode boundary layer of high intensity arcs. J. of Appl. Phys, 51, 3149-3157. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.328063
9. Dyuzhev, G.A., Nemchinsky, V.A., Shkolnik, S.M. et al. (1983) Anode processes in high-current arc discharge. Khimiya Plazmy, 10, 169-209 [in Russian].
10. Nazarenko, I.P., Panevin, I.G. (1989) Analysis of the near-anode processes character in argon arc discharge of high pressure. Contrib. Plasma Phys., 29, 251-261. https://doi.org/10.1002/ctpp.2150290303
11. Jenista, J., Heberlein, J.V.R., Pfender, E. (1997) Numerical model of the anode region of high-current electric arcs. IEEE Trans. on Plasma Science, 25, 883-890. https://doi.org/10.1109/27.649585
12. Amakawa, T., Jenista, J., Heberlein, J. et al. (1998) Anodeboundary-layer behavior in a transferred, high intensity arc. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 31, 2826-2834. https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/31/20/017
13. Tanaka, M., Ushio, M., Wu, C.S. (1999) One-dimensional analysis of the anode boundary layer in free-burning argon arcs. Ibid., 32, 605-611. https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/32/5/016
14. Krivtsun, I.V., Demchenko, V.F., Krikent, I.V. (2010) Model of the processes of heat, mass and charge transfer in the anode region and column of the welding arc with refractory cathode. The Paton Welding J., 6, 2-9.
15. Krikent, I.V., Krivtsun, I.V., Demchenko, V.F. (2014) Simulation of electric arc with refractory cathode and evaporating anode. Ibid., 9, 17-24. https://doi.org/10.15407/tpwj2014.09.02
16. Demchenko, V.F., Krivtsun, I.V., Krikent, I.V. et al. (2017) Force interaction of arc current with self magnetic field. Ibid.,3, 15-24. https://doi.org/10.15407/tpwj2017.03.03
17. Yushchenko, K.A., Kovalenko, D.V., Krivtsun, I.V. et al. (2009) Experimental studies and mathematical modeling of penetration in TIG and A-TIG stationary arc welding of stainless steel. Welding in the World, 53(9-10), 253-263. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03321137
18. Krivtsun, I.V., Krikent, I.V., Demchenko, V.F. et al. (2015) Interaction of CO2-laser beam with electric arc plasma in hybrid (laser-arc) welding. The Paton Welding J., 3-4, 6-15. https://doi.org/10.15407/tpwj2015.04.01
19. Yushchenko, K.A., Kovalenko, D.V., Kovalenko, I.V. (2005) Peculiarities of A-TIG welding of stainless steel. In: Proc. of the 7th Int. Conf. on Trends in Welding Research - Pine Mountain, Georgia, USA, 367-376.
20. Krivtsun, I., Demchenko, V., Krikent, I. et al. (2015) Distributed and integrated characteristics of the near-anode plasma of the welding arc in TIG and hybrid (TIG + CO2-laser) welding. In: Mathematical Modelling of Weld Phenomena 11 - Techn. Universität Graz, Austria, 837-874. https://doi.org/10.15407/tpwj2015.04.01
21. Tanaka, M., Ushio, M. (1999) Observations of the anode boundary layer in free-burning arcs. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 32, 906-912. https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/32/8/011
22. Sanders, N.A., Pfender, E. (1984) Measurement of anode falls and anode heat transfer in atmospheric pressure high intensity arcs. J. of Appl. Phys., 55, 714-722. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.333129
23. Sydorets, V.N., Krivtsun, I.V., Demchenko, V.F. et al. (2016) Calculation and experimental research of static and dynamic volt-ampere characteristics of argon arc with refractory cathode. The Paton Welding J., 2, 2-8. https://doi.org/10.15407/tpwj2016.02.01
24. Lancaster, J.F. (1986) The physics of welding. 2nd Ed. Pergamon Press.
25. Uhrlandt, D., Baeva, M., Kozakov, R. et al. (2013) Cathode fall voltage of TIG arcs from a non-equilibrium arc model. In: IIW Essen, 2013, Group 212 - Physics of Welding.
26. Nestor, O.H. (1962) Heat intensity and current density distributions at the anode of high current, inert gas arcs. J. of Appl. Phys., 33(5), 1638-1648. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1728803
>