TPWJ, 2021, #11, 29-33 pages
Investigation of the causes for appearance of defects in welded butt joints of tram rails made by thermit welding
E. Turyk1, I.O. Ryabtsev2, M. Lomozik1, K. Krasnovskyi1
Lucasiewicz Research Network-Institute of Welding
44-100, Gliwicc, 16-18 Bl. Czeslava, Poland. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute of the NASU
11 Kazymyr Malevych Str., 03150, Kyiv, Ukraine
The results of investigations of the causes for fatigue fracture of rail butt joints on two new tram tracks, made by thermit welding
by two organizations are presented. Control analysis of the chemical composition and mechanical properties of the rail
material; analysis of the chemical composition of the welds, macro- and microscopic investigations of the weld, HAZ and base
metal, and hardness studies in these zones were performed. It was found that pore accumulation and isolated microcracks in
the metal of welds are the potential cause for cracking. Violations of the technological process of thermit welding of the tram
tracks were determined, which lead to appearance of these defects. The detected defects are the result of the following factors,
associated with failure to meet the standard requirements on thermit welding of tram tracks and of the system of ensuring the
quality of welding operations, namely violation of welding technology and insufficient control at the respective stages of the
thermit welding, tram tracks, fatigue cracks, porosity; microcracks, quality assurance system
1. PN-EN 16771:2017–01: Railway applications — Infrastructure
— Aluminothermic welding of grooved rails.
2. PN-EN 14730-1:2017–06: Railway applications — Track —
Aluminothermic welding of rails, Pt 1: Approval of welding
3. DSTU EN ІSO 3834-2:2019: Quality requirements for fusion
welding of metallic materials, Pt 2: Comprehensive quality
4. PN-EN 14811:2019–06: Railway applications. Track. Special
purpose rail. Grooved rails and associated construction profiles.
5. Lawrence, F.V., Chen, Y-R., Cyre, J.P. (2014) Improving the
fatigue resistance of thermite railroad rail weldments. http://
6. Thermit SRZ/SRZ L50/SRE welding process for grooved rails.
7. DSTU EN 10204:2017: Metallic products — Types of inspection
8. PN-EN 14730-2:2006: Railway applications — Track — Aluminothermic
welding of rails, Pt 2: Qualification of aluminothermic
welders, approval of contractors and acceptance of
9. (2010) Code of Practice for the THERMIT — Quick Welding
Procedure SoWoS. Elektro-Thermit GmbH & Co KG.
10. (2019) Instrukcja spawania szyn termitem Id-5. PKP Polskie
Linie Kolejowe S.A.
11. Code of Practice for the THERMIT — Quick Welding Procedure
SkV. Elektro-Thermit GmbH & Co KG, 2010. https://
12. Elektro-Thermit. Technology of aluminothermic welding of
rails with short time of heating (SkV, SkV-L 50, SkV-L 75).
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