2018 №10 (02) DOI of Article
2018 №10 (04)

Automatic Welding 2018 #10
Avtomaticheskaya Svarka (Automatic Welding), #10, 2018, с. 17-26

Effect of surface-active elements on the formation of crystalline cracks

V.A. Anoshin, V.M. Ilyushenko

E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute of the NAS of Ukraine, 11 Kazimir Malevich Str., 03150, Kyiv, Ukraine. E-mail: office@paton.kiev.ua

Based on the analysis of physicochemical properties of harmful impurities, the notions about the mechanism of their effect on the formation of crystalline cracks in different metals are summarized, which consist, firstly, in their enrichment of crystallite boundaries (residual liquid) at the last stages of solidification and, secondly, in revealing the effect of adsorption reduction of strength and ductility. The difference in the character of solidification of single-phase and two-phase (with eutectic) alloys in the enrichment of crystallite boundaries with harmful impurities was established. It is shown that the specific surface energy at the interface solid metal – melt and grain boundaries have the greatest effect on cracks formation. It was established that also surface-active alloying elements, characterized by the same physicochemical properties as harmful impurities, can influence the increased tendency to crystalline cracks formation. The formula for subcritical crack growth, proposed by E.E. Glikman et al. can serve as a criterion for evaluation of the effect of surface-active elements on the formation of crystalline cracks. 36 Ref., 2 Tabl., 9 Fig.
Keywords: crystalline cracks, harmful impurities, physicochemical properties, effect of adsorption reduction of ductility and strength, distribution coefficient, enrichment of grain boundaries, state diagram, crystalline pattern, eutecticAvtomaticheskaya Svarka (Automatic Welding), #10, 2018, с. 17-26

Received: 10.09.2018
Published: 25.10.2018

1. (1962) Decision of meeting on hot cracks in welded joints, castings and ingots. Svarochn. Proizvodstvo, 11, 41-43 [in Russian].
2. Podgaetsky, V.V., Parfesso, G.I. (1977) Cracks of sulfide origin in welding of steel. Kiev, Naukova Dumka [in Russian].
3. Prokhorov, N.N. (1976) Physical processes in metals during welding. Vol. 2: Internal stresses, strains and phase transformations. Moscow, Metallurgiya [in Russian].
4. Drezet, J.M., Allehaux, D. (2008) Application of the Rappaz-Drezet-Gremaud hot tearing criterion to welding of aluminium alloys. Ed. by T. Boellinghaus et al. In: Hot Cracking Phenomena in Welds II. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 19-37. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-78628-3_2
5. Novikov, I.I. (1966) Hot brittleness of nonferrous metals and alloys. Moscow, Nauka [in Russian].
6. Brooks, J.A., Lambert, F.J. (1978) The effects of phosphorus, sulfur and ferrite content on weld cracking of type 309 stainless steel. Welding Res. Suppl., May, 139-143.
7. Nishimoto, K., Saida, K., Kiuchi, K., Nakayama, J. (2011) Influence of minor impurity elements on hot cracking susceptibility of extra high-purity type 310 stainless steels. Ed. by T. Boellinghaus et al. In: Hot Cracking Phenomena in Welds. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 183-207. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-16864-2_11
8. Bernaovsky, P. (2005) Contribution to HAZ liquation cracking of austenitic stainless steels. Ed. by T. Boellinghaus et al. In: Hot Cracking Phenomena in Welds II. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 84-103. https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-27460-X_6
9. Anoshin, V.A., Ilyushenko, V.M., Bondarenko, A.N. et al. (2014) Integrated evaluation of effect of main impurities on weldability of copper. The Paton Welding J., 11, 24-27. https://doi.org/10.15407/tpwj2014.11.04
10. Nizhenko, V.I., Eremenko, V.N. (1964) On surface activity of additives in liquid metals. Poroshk. Metallurgiya, 2(20), 11-18 [in Russian].
11. Vajsburd, S.E. (1965) Surface properties of binary metallic melts Fe-S, Co-S, Ni-S. Surface phenomena in melts and solid phases appearing from them. Nalchik, Kabardino-Balkarskoe Kn. Iz-vo, 333-337 [in Russian].
12. Rostoker, U., Mac-Kogi, Dis, Markus, G. (1962) Brittleness under action of liquid metals. Moscow, Izd-vo Inostr. Lit. [in Russian].
13. Nizhenko, V.I., Floka, L.I. (1981) Surface tension of liquid metals and alloys. Moscow, Metallurgiya [in Russian].
14. Tiller, U.A. (1968) Chapter IV: Solidification. Physical metals science. Ed. by Kan. Issue II: Phase transformations. Metallography. Moscow, Mir, 155-226 [in Russian].
15. Bartel, I., Burig, E., Khajn, K. et al. (1987) Crystallization from melts. In: Refer. book. Moscow, Metallurgiya [in Russian].
16. Khansen, M., Anderko, K. (1962) Structure of binary alloys. Vol. 1, 2. Moscow, Metallurgizdat [in Russian].
17. Likhtman, V.I., Shchukin, E.D., Rebinder, P.A. (1962) Physical-chemical mechanics of metals. Moscow, AN SSSR [in Russian].
18. Glikman, E.E., Goryunov, Yu.V., Dyomin, V.M., Sarychev, K.Yu. (1976) Kinetics and mechanism of fracture of copper at deformation in surface-arctive melts. Izv. Vuzov SSSR, Fizika, 5, 7-23 [in Russian].
19. Movchan, B.A. (1970) Boundaries of crystallites in cast metals and alloys. Kiev, Tekhnika [in Russian].
20. Powell, B.D., Mukura, H. (1973) Segregation of bismuth to grain boundaries in copper-bismuth alloys. Acta Met., 21, 1151-1156. https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-6160(73)90031-X
21. Karmanchuk, V.I. et al. (1979) On causes of crack initiation in oxygen-free copper continuous casting ingots. Tsvetnye Metally, 6, 58-59 [in Russian].
22. Anoshin, V.A., Ilyushenko, V.M., Lukyanchenko, E.P. (2018) Effect of main impurities on formation of cracks in welding of copper-nickel alloys and surfacing of monel on steel. The Paton Welding J., 4, 11-13. https://doi.org/10.15407/tpwj2018.04.02
23. Anoshin, V.A., Ilyushenko, V.M., Rudenko, V.N. (1973) Influence of sulfur on crack formation in welding of monel and nickel. Avtomatich. Svarka, 11, 74-75 [in Russian].
24. Anoshin, V.A., Gurevich, S.M., Ilyushenko, V.M., Baranova, V.N. (1981) Influence of surface-active elements on deformability of nickel and monel. Ibid., 7, 46-48 [in Russian].
25. Gurevich, S.M., Anoshin, V.A., Ilyushenko, V.M., Vitman, D.V. et al. (1970) Influence of cerium on susceptibility of monel on crack formation. Ibid., 1, 72-73 [in Russian].
26. Chalmers, B. (1968) Theory of solidification. Moscow, Metallurgiya [in Russian].
27. Rabkin, D.M., Frumin, I.I. (1950) Causes of hot crack formation in welds. Avtomatich. Svarka, 2, 3-43 [in Russian].
28. Popel, S.I., Tsarevsky, B.V., Pavlov, V.V. et al. (1976) On mutual effect of oxygen and sulfur on their surface activity in iron. In: Physical chemistry of contact phase interface. Kiev, Naukova Dumka [in Russian].
29. Zadumkin, S.N., Karashaev, A.A. (1965) Relation between surface energies of metals in solid and liquid phases. In: Surface phenomena in melts and solid phases appearing from them. Nalchik, Kabardino-Balkarskoe Knizhn. Izd-vo [in Russian].
30. Kuznetsov, V.D. (1954) Surface energy of solids. Moscow, Gosizdat [in Russian].
31. Ilyushenko, V.M., Anoshin, V.A., Bondarenko, A.N. et al. (1980) Some problems of weldability of complexly-alloyed copper alloys. In: Proc. of 1st All-Union Conf. on Current Problems of nonferrous metals. Kiev, Naukova Dumka, 225-229 [in Russian].
32. Mondolfo, L.F. (1979) Structure and properties of aluminium alloys. Moscow, Metallurgiya [in Russian].
33. Drits, M.E. et al. (1973) About nature of interaction of scandium with part of Al-Sc system aluminium-rich. Izv. AN SSSR. Metally. Moscow, Nauka, 213-217 [in Russian].
34. Benz, M.G., Elliot, J.F. (1961) The austenitite solidus and revised iron-carbon diagram. Trns. Metallurg. Soc. AIME, 221(2), 232-331.
35. Shadrin, G.G. (1980) Effect of sodium content on hot brittleness of 1920 alloy of Al–Mg–Zn system. Tekhnologiya Lyogkikh Splavov, 10, 12-14 [in Russian].
36. Ishchenko, A.Ya., Labur, T.M. (2013) Welding of modern structures from aluminium alloys. Kiev, Naukova Dumka [in Russian].