2018 №12 (08) DOI of Article
2018 №12 (10)

Automatic Welding 2018 #12
Avtomaticheskaya Svarka (Automatic Welding), #11-12, 2018, с. 93-102

Prospects of development of welded single-crystal structures of heat-resistant nickel alloys

K.A. Yushchenko, B.A. Zaderii, I.S. Gakh, A.V. Zvyagintseva

E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute of the NAS of Ukraine. 11 Kazimir Malevich Str., Kyiv, 03150. E-mail:office@paton.kiev.ua
Heat-resistant nickel alloys with single-crystal structure are used in such branches of industry as turbine manufacture, aerospace engineering and power engineering. However, their further mastering is restrained by complexity, and sometimes impossibility of production of structure elements of large size and developed geometry. Production as well as repair using traditional methods of single-crystal products with developed geometry such as, for example, long or cooled gas turbine blades etc., represent a complex technological and expensive problem. Manufacture of assemblies, parts, structures of such type by means of their welding from separate elements or building-up often seems to be more reasonable and allows developing products with single-crystal structure on virtually new basis. The aim of the presented work is development of new approaches applicable to manufacture of the single-crystal welded structures of critical designation with increased mechanical characteristics and service parameters. The results of investigations and examples of pilot welded structures of such type, produced at the E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute of the NAS of Ukraine, are presented. 30 Ref., 9 Fig.
Keywords: heat-resistant nickel alloys, single-crystals, welded structures of complex geometry, electron-beam welding, gas turbine blades, conditions of formation of single-crystal structure

Received: 13.07.2018
Published: 06.11.2018

1. Stroganov, G.B., Chepkin, V.M. (2000) Cast high-temperature alloys for gas turbines. Moscow, ONTI MATI [in Russian].
2. Petukhov, A.N. (1993) Fatigue resistance of GTE parts. Moscow, Mashinostroenie [in Russian].
3. Kablov, E.N. (2001) Cast blades of gas-turbine engines (alloys, technology, coatings). Moscow, MISIS [in Russian].
4. Sorokin, L.I. (2004) Weldability of high-temperature nickel alloys (Review). Pt 2. Svarochn. Proizvodstvo, 10, 8-16 [in Russian].
5. Sorokin, L.I. (2004) Weldability of high-temperature nickel alloys (Review). Pt 1. Ibid., 9, 3-7 [in Russian].
6. Lippold, J., C., Cotecki, D.J. (2005) Welding metallurgy and weldability of stainless steels. Wiley Interscience. A J.Wiley&sons inc. Publication.
7. Pollock, T.M., Murphy, W.H. (1996) The breakdown of single-crystal solidification in high refractory nickel-base alloys. Metall. Mater. Transact. A., 27A, 1081-1094. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02649777
8. Park, J.-W., Baby, S.S., Vitek, J.M. et al. (2003) Stray grain formation in single crystal Ni-base superalloy welds. J. of Applied Physics, 94(6), 4203-4209. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1602950
9. Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A., Dubiel, B., Zietara, M., Cetel, A. (2007) Development of single crystal Ni-based superalloys for advanced aircraft turbine blades. Ingynieria Materialowa, 3-4, 128-133.
10. Reed, R.C. (2006) The superalloys: Fundamentals and application. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511541285
11. (2004) Aviation materials. In: Sci.-Techn. Coll.: High-rhenium high-temperature alloys, technology and equipment for production of alloys and casting of single crystal GTE blades. Moscow, VIAM [in Russian].
12. Fitzpatrick, G.A., Broughton, T. (1986) Rolls-Royse wide chord fan blade. In: Proc. of Int. Conf. on Titanium Products and Applications (San, Francisco, California, USA, October 1986).
13. Inozemtsev, A.A., Nikhamkin, M.A., Sandratsky, V.L. (2008) Principles of design of aircraft engines and power units. Vol. 2: Compressors. Combusion chambers. Afterburners. Turbines. Output devices. In: Manual for higher education institutes. Moscow, Mashinostroenie [in Russian].
14. Yushchenko, K.A., Zadery, B.A., Gakh, I.S., Karasevskaya, O.P. (2016) Formation of weld metal structure in electron beam welding of single crystals of high-temperature nickel alloys. The Paton Welding J., 8, 15-22. https://doi.org/10.15407/tpwj2016.08.04
15. Yushchenko, K.A., Gakh, I.S., Zadery, B.A. et al. (2013) Main theoretical backgrounds of welding of metal single crystals. In: Physical and technical problems of modern materials science. Vol. 1. Akademperiodika, 148-176 [in Russian].
16. Yushchenko, K.A., Gakh, I.S., Zadery, B.A. et al. (2013) Influence of weld pool geometry on structure of metal of welds on high-temperature nickel alloy single-crystals. The Paton Welding J., 5, 45-50.
17. Yushchenko, K.A., Zadery, B.A., Gakh, I.S., et al. (2013) On nature of grains of random orientation in welds of single-crystal high-temperature nickel alloys. Metallofizika i Novejshie Tekhnologii, 35(10), 1347-1357 [in Russian].
18. Yushchenko, K.A., Zadery, B.A., Zvyagintseva, A.V. et al. (2009) Peculiarities of structure of metal deposited on edges of single-crystal blades made from nickel superalloys. The Paton Welding J., 8, 36-42.
19. Yushchenko, K.A., Zadery, B.A., Gakh, I.S. et al. (2009) On possibility of inheritance of single-crystal complexly-alloyed nickel alloys under nonequilibrium conditions of fusion welding. Metallofizika i Novejshie Tekhnologii, 31(4), 473-485 [in Russian].
20. Yushchenko, K.A., Zadery, B.A., Kotenko, S.S. et al. (2008) Sensitivity to cracking and structural changes in EBW of single crystals of heat-resistant nickel alloys. The Paton Welding J., 2, 6-13.
21. Yushchenko, K.A., Zadery, B.A., Karasevskaya, O.P. et al. (2006) Structural changes in crystallization process of nickel superalloys in crystallography-asymmetric location of welding pool. Metallofizika i Novejshie Tekhnologii, 28(11), 1509-1527 [in Russian].
22. Yushchenko, K.A., Zadery, B.A., Karasevskaya, O.P. et al. (2006) Structure of welded joints in tungsten single crystals. The Paton Welding J., 8, 29-36.
23. Yushchenko, K.A., Karasevskaya, O.P., Kotenko, S.S. et al. (2005) Inheritance of structure-oriented state of metallic materials by welded joints. Ibid., 9, 2-9.
24. Zadery, B.A., Kotenko, S.S., Polishchuk, E.P. et al. (2003) Peculiarities of crystalline structure of welded joints in single crystals. Ibid., 5, 13-20.
25. Clark, D., Bache, M.R., Whittaker, M.T. (2008) Shaped metal deposition of nickel alloy for aero engine applications. J. Materials Proc. Technology, 203, 439-448. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2007.10.051
26. Ding, D., Pan, Z., Cuiuri, D., Li, H. (2015) Wire-feed additive manufacturing of components: technologies, developments and future interests. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 81(1-4), 465-481. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-015-7077-3
27. Frazier, W.E. (2014) Metal additive manufacturing (Review). J. Mater. Eng. and Performance, 23(6), 1917-1928. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-014-0958-z
28. Brandla, E., Baufeld, B., Leyens, C., Gauitd, R. (2010) Additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V using welding wire: Comparison of laser and arc beam deposition and evaluation with respect to aerospace materials specification. Proc. of the Laser Assisted Net Shape Engineering, 5, Pt B, 595-606. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phpro.2010.08.087
29. (2018) Additive manufacturing: Siemens uses innovative technology to produce gas turbines. Press-Siemens Global Website, Munich, Mar 19. www.siemens.com/press/en/
30. Rockstroh, T., Abbott, D., Hix, K., Mook, J. (2013) Lessons learned from development cycle. Additive manufacturing at GE Aviation – Industrial Laser Solutions, 1-6. www.industrial-lasers.com/articles/print/volume-28/issue-6/features/additive-manufacturing-at-ge-aviation.html