Paton B.E., Saenko V.Ya., Pomarin Yu.M., Medovar L.B., Grigorenko
G.M. and Fedorovsky B.B. Arc-slag remelting - state-of-the-art
and prospects of development. P. 2
Peculiarities and technological capabilities of the arc-slag remelting (ASR) method, developed at the E.O. Paton Electric
Welding Institute, were considered. The results of experimental and industrial melting of steels and alloys are given. As
compared with ESR the ASR method makes it possible to 1.5 times reduce the energy consumption, and also to decrease almost by 2
times the consumption of a synthetic flux per 1 t of metal during melting of ingots. As to the quality, the ASR metal is not
inferior to the ESR metal. The main advantage of ASR is a feasibility to alloy metals with nitrogen from the gas phase,
including that under pressure, at a complete elimination of expensive nitrogen-containing compounds, for example, silicon
nitride, from the technological process of production of high-nitrogen steels and alloys. It is shown that the ASR is also
effective in the production of titanium and its alloys and produces ingots with a good surface and high quality. The
prospects of ASR further development are outlined.
Kapustin I.V., Akulov V.P., Galushka A.A. and Stovbun N.A. About
determination of chemical composition of metal of electroslag
remelting. P. 9
Statement of GOST 7565-81, concerning the determination of chemical composition of metal of the electroslag remelting, is
considered. It is shown that the composition of metal, sampled from the bottom part of the ESR ingot can differ, according to
the recommendations of this GOST, from the metal of the rest part of the ingot in carbon, sulphur, silicon and other
easily-oxidizing elements. The sampling is suggested to be made from the top part of the ingot.
Zakharchenko V.I., Skripnik S.V., Chernega D.F., Skripnik V.P.,
Semenov A.N. and Dudetskaya L.R. Electroslag crucible bifilar
furnace ETPB-2.5 with a consumable electrode and a block of
non-consumable electrodes. P. 10
The design diagram of the electroslag crucible furnace for utilization of metal rejections, in particular large dies, has
been suggested. The technological variants of remelting composite consumable electrodes from metal rejections of large sections
using the water-cooled non-consumable electrodes were developed. The installation can produce liquid metal of up to 2.5 t mass of
the required composition under the conditions of machine-building enterprise with use of their own metal rejections.
ELECTRON BEAM PROCESSES
Paton B.E., Zhuk G.V. and Trigub N.P. Effect of initial cooling
rates in solidification on structure of heat-resistant nickel
alloys. P. 13
Suggested is the method of electron beam hot spraying for producing structural materials out of a dispersed melt. The
method combines advantages of granulating and casting technologies. The mathematical model of thermal processes of
solidification of a dispersed melt has been developed. The initial rate of cooling of a heat-resistant nickel alloy in
solidification has been determined, and effect of a high cooling rate on structure of the alloy has been studied.
Demchishin A.V., Kurapov Yu.A., Polishchuk E.P. and Ternovoj E.G.
Failure of a protective coating on niobium at high-temperature
oxidation. P. 15
The paper proposes a more stringent procedure of testing high-temperature resistant protective coatings on refractory
metals and alloys in a dynamic gaseous medium with addition of an oxidiser. Studied was the mode of breaking up of a four-layer
protective coating, applied on flat tensile testing specimens of niobium by the method of vacuum electron beam deposition from the
Zhuk G.V., Kalinyuk A.N. and Trigub N.P. Modelling of conditions
of removal of shrinkage pipe from cylindrical EBCH ingots. P. 19
Methods of mathematical modelling were used to study the process of removal of a shrinkage pipe (porosity) from cylindrical ingots
of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The three-stage process of electron beam cold-hearth (EBCH) remelting is considered. Technological
parameters are recommended, providing ingots free from defects in the head part.
Melnik G.A., Zabarilo O.S., Zhadkevich M.L., Zhdanovsky A.A.,
Prikhodko M.S. and Pobol A.A. Certain possibilities for steel
treatment in the arc and plasma ladle-furnaces. P. 22
Technological possibilities for melting of steels in the arc steel-melting furnaces (ASMF) by the conventional method and by
the duplex-process (melting in the ASMF<196>ladle treatment of steel) are considered. Basic power indices of the steel melting
are analyzed. It is shown that the ladle treatment of steel in the arc ladle-furnaces and especially in plasma ladle-furnaces
permits improving the steel quality, increasing efficiency of the ASMF, decreasing the power consumption and expanding
technological and metallurgical potentialities of the process. Steels after plasma ladle treatment in argon, nitrogen or their
mixture are on par in quality with steels produced by the methods of special electrometallurgy, and meet the requirements of the
Shapovalov V.A. Model of induction heating for plasma-induction
growing of single-crystals. P. 27
The quality of metallic single-crystals is largely dependent on the temperature field, formed in plasma-induction heating that
accompanies the processes of single-crystal growth. Considered in this connection is the problem of mathematical modelling of a
single-crystal induction heating, to achieve optimal control of its temperature field formation. The problem of induction heating
of a single-crystal is defined as a non-linear boundary problem of mathematical physics. Numerical-analytical solution of this
problem has been derived and appropriate computer modelling has been performed.
Anikin Yu.F., Maksyuta I.I., Dobkina Yu.G. and Verbilo M.A.
Recycling high-temperature alloy waste by vacuum remelting
methods. P. 32
Combined remelting of high-temperature alloy wastes, used in production of gas turbine engine blades, has been developed.
Thermophysical conditions of melt solidification after remelting are established, that ensure formation of an equiaxial
fine-grained structure in the charge material, thus promoting the increase of high-temperature ductility of the alloys with
preservation of a high level of strength.
GENERAL PROBLEMS OF METALLURGY
Gasik M.I., Semenov I.A., Yushkevich O.P., Ovcharuk A.N. and
Projdak Yu.S. Simulation of wear resistance characteristics of
high-manganese steel turnout frogs in service. P. 35
Service conditions of cast frogs of high-manganese steel are considered. The rate of frog failure in service for the reasons
of reaching limit level of contact fatigue defects and higher wear is determined. The paper analyses the joint influence of
carbon and phosphorus on development of service defects in frogs, made of high-manganese steel. Equations of multiple regression
are derived, that describe the interrelation between the content of carbon and phosphorus in 110G13L steel and the failure rate of
frogs in service. Methods for improvement of the quality of 110G13L steel for railway frogs are determined.
Mojsov L.P., Burylev B.P. and Laptev D.M. Enthalpy of liquid
slags of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 system at different
temperatures. P. 38
Relative enthalpy of liquid slags of the
CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 system of different
compositions and at different temperatures was calculated on the basis of the
V.A. Kozheurov's theory of regular ionic melts and standard reference data.
Isenthalpies of this system were obtained.
Fedorov V.N., Shchekin-Krotov V.A. and Kasumov A.M. Pyrometry
measurements in EBCH melting. P. 43
The possibility of using a pyrometer to determine a molten metal temperature through a window with a variable optical density is
shown. The temperature measured is adjusted during the melting process by a liquidus temperature of the metal melted.
ADVERTISING. P. 45
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