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Sovremennaya Elektrometallurgiya, 2005, №04

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2005 №03 2006 №01

CONTENTS



SE «ZTMW» is 70 years! 2
ELECTROSLAG TECHNOLOGY
Troyansky A.A., Dymnich A.Kh., Medovar L.B. and RyabtsevA.D. Peculiarities of mass exchange processes in film stage of the ESR process 4
An attempt of physical «cold» modeling of process of melting of consumable electrode in ESR was made. A cyclic nature of behavior of a molten metal film at the electrode end was established. Analytical description of this process was made as regards to description of refining of metal being remelted from sulphur.
Eryomin E.N. and Zherebtsov S.N. Horizontal centrifugal electroslag casting of tubular billets of heat-treatment furnaces 8
New technology of manufacture of tubular billets of a small thickness, including the electroslag accumulation of metal in a melting unit and pouring into a horizontal centrifugal machine, is described. Results of testing cast metal are given, its advantages are shown.
Sokolov V.M., Litvin L.G., Martynenko V.V., Suvorin A.V., Zhidkov E.A. and Mekhed A.N. Replacement of alumina by a carrier from spent catalysts in refractory production 12
The feasibility of use of materials of used catalysts of ammonia production, containing NiO on a carrier of aluminium oxide, as charge materials, is studied. It is shown that they are suitable for producing heat-resistant cements on aluminium oxide base. Clinker was produced by use of carbon reducing agent in the furnace of electroslag crucible remelting, the main specifics of which is the guarantee of uniform heating of the melt. It was established that this advantage promotes the more complete reduction of NiO in parallel with a simultaneous separation of metal and oxide phases. The final oxide product meets the Ukrainian standards and can be used in the cement production, and also for the replacement of flux AN-292 used in electroslag technologies.
ELECTRON BEAM PROCESSES
Zhuk G.V., Berezos V.A. and Severin A.Yu. Mathematical modeling of thermal processes in EBCHM of hollow ingots 16
A mathematical model of heat transfer has been developed in formation of a hollow ingot using the method of electron beam cold hearth melting (EBCHM). Thermo-physical conditions of ingot solidification were calculated depending upon technological parameters of melting, such as EB heating and process efficiency. Optimum parameters of melting of hollow ingot of titanium alloy TiД6AlД4V of internal (200 mm) and external (600 mm) diameters were determined.
Ustinov A.I., Lyapina K.V. and Melnichenko T.V. Regularities of stainless steel porous structure formation during its deposition from vapor phase in presence of sodium chloride vapors 19
Porous condensates were produced in a combined deposition of vapor flows, formed by electron beam evaporation in vacuum of Kh18N10T stainless steel and sodium chloride, on the substrate. The effect of substrate temperature, ratio of vapor flows of metal and salt, and also the rate of condensate growth on characteristics of macroporous structure of the stainless steel condensate was studied. A non-monotonous dependence of porosity on substrate temperature is shown. It was established that characteristics of macroporous structure (fraction of open porosity and shape of pores) depend both on the rate of condensate growth and also on ratio of vapor flows of metal and salt.
PLASMA-ARC TECHNOLOGY
Zhadkevich M.L., Shapovalov V.A., Melnik G.A., VislobokovO.M. and Tsykulenko K.A. Arc heat sources with nonconsumable electrodes 25
Modern developments in the field of arc heat sources with nonconsumable electrodes for the needs of special electrometallurgy are analyzed. Using the examples of technical solutions of the most known companies, the specifics of design and methods of improvement of service characteristics of the mentioned equipment are shown. Challenging trends in the development of new models of arc heat sources with nonconsumable electrodes are defined.
Dabizha E.V., Novikov N.V., Borisova N.N., Bondar I.V., Dabizha V.E. and Zolotukhin A.V. State-of-the-art vacuum technologies for application of coatings 29
Results of technological developments in the field of creation of science-intensive technologies for producing and practical application of ion-plasma vacuum coatings are given. It is shown that comprehensive study of physics of fine films of metallic and non-metallic materials made it possible to develop and apply a complex of different ion-plasma methods for spraying these materials and combinations thereof in a single vacuum space of the working chamber. An additional electro-physical action on the processes of evaporation and condensation is used in the new technologies. Existing equipment was modified by introduction of programmable devices and automatic control systems into technological processes of coating application. Opportunities of applying different functional and protective-decorative coatings were significantly widened, and a number of industrial bays were established in Ukraine, South Korea, Macedonia, and Spain. Practical and economic efficiency of these coatings is demonstrated. The ways of their further use in Ukraine and abroad on contract basis are defined.
GENERAL PROBLEMS OF METALLURGY
Markashova L.I., Grigorenko G.M., Petrov S.V. and ValevichM.L. Interrelation between structure and physical-mechanical properties of surface layers of wheel bands in plasma treatment 35
Structural peculiarities of surface layers of metal of wheel pairs, treated by plasma in unit UVPZ-2M, are defined. Levels of local internal stresses in surface layers, forming mainly in the zone of contact of gradient structures, and also deformation, localized in the area of plasma treatment (at the depth of approximately 100 mm from external surface) are determined. It is shown that it is possible to provide the optimum structural-phase state of metal of surface layers of tread bands by control of temperature-heating/cooling rate conditions of wheels within the range of working parameters of plasma equipment that guarantees the required complex of mechanical properties of the wheels.
Zolkina L.V. and Kozhemyakin G.N. Formation of lamellar inhomogeneity of alloying components in crystallization of melts 43
Results of investigation of lamellar inhomogeneity in single crystals of solid solution GaxIn1ДxSb with gallium content x= 0.03, grown using the Czochralski method under action of ultrasonic field of frequency up to 1.44 MHz, are described. On the basis of data of the growth experiments a mechanism of formation of layers in crystals at a distance from 7 to 14 mm was suggested. It was established that non-vertical arrangement of the crystal being pulled with respect to the melt surface stipulates irregular character of crystallization, thus resulting in formation of fine layers in single crystals GaxIn1ДxSb.
ENERGY AND RESOURCE SAVING
Paton B.E., Chernets A.V., Marinsky G.S., Korzhik V.N. and Petrov V.S. Prospects of using plasma technologies for disposal and recycling of medical and other hazardous waste. Part 2 46
Problems connected with disposal and recycling of medical and other hazardous waste are analyzed. Existing ways of their solution, among which the application of plasma technologies is most effective, are considered. Examples of application of different technologies and equipment of plasma recycling of waste prove their significant advantage as compared to canonic technologies, in particular using combustion. It is shown that the new processes allow complex solution of the problems of recycling and disposal of waste (both from the viewpoint of high efficiency and environmental safety) and can be recommended as one of the most promising alternative ways of improvement and development of technologies for recycling medical and other hazardous wastes.
INFORMATION
Thesis for a scientific degree 54
Index of articles for AEM'2005, Nos. 1Д4 55
List of authors 56


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