2016 №02 (05) DOI of Article
2016 №02 (07)

Automatic Welding 2016 #02
Avtomaticheskaya Svarka (Automatic Welding), #2, 2016, pp. 41-47
Modern composite materials for switching and welding equipment. Information 2. Application of high-rate vacuum evaporation methods for manufacturing electric contacts and electrodes

N.I. Grechanyuk1, V.G. Grechanyuk2, E.V. Khomenko1, I.N. Grechanyuk1 and V.G. Zatovsky1
1I.M. Frantsevich Institute of Problems of Materials Science, NASU. 3 Krzhizhanovsky Str., 03680, Kiev, Ukraine. E-mail: homhelen@mail.ru
2Kiev National University of Construction and Architecture. 31 Vozdukhoflotsky Ave., 03037, Kiev, Ukraine. E-mail: knuba@knuba.edu.ua
The paper presents the method of electron beam vacuum evaporation and condensation for the most promising technologies of manufacturing modern composite materials, used in welding and switching equipment. This method currently is one of the components of the technological process of producing thin (up to 5 mm) films for radio engineering, microelectronics, computer engineering, etc., as well as thick (more than 5 mm) films-condensates widely applied as effective protective and wear-resistant coatings. Described are the results of scientific and production activity on introduction into industry of technologies of deposition of thick films based on copper and refractory metals (molybdenum, tungsten, chromium) with additives of REM and other metals (yttrium, zirconium) on the surface of electric contacts and electrodes. Proceeding from the results of trials performed in more than 54 enterprises of Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, Rumania, Poland and PRC it was established that the developed materials are not inferior to silver-containing powder compositions in terms of serviceability, while being approximately 3 times less expensive than the latter. 57 Ref., 1 Table, 4 Figures.
Keywords: composite materials, copper and refractory metals, welding and switching engineering, electron beam evaporation, condensate films, serviceability
Received:                21.07.15
Published:               12.04.16
  1. (2002) New materials. Ed. by Yu.S. Korobasov. Moscow: MISIS.
  2. (2008) Materials science. Technology of structural materials. Ed. by V.S. Cherednichenko. Moscow: Omego-L.
  3. Bunshah, R.F. (1984) Vacuum evaporation — h Recent developments and application. Zeitschrift fuer Metallkunde, 75(11), 840–846.
  4. Zuev, I.V. (1998) Treatment of materials by concentrated energy flows. Moscow: MEI.
  5. (1997) Technology of thin films: Refer. Book. Ed. by L. Majsell et al. Moscow: Sov. Radio.
  6. Samsonov, G.V., Epik, A.P. (1973) Refractory coatings. Moscow: Metallurgiya.
  7. Schiller, S., Heisig, U., Panzer, S. (1980) Electron beam technology. Moscow: Energiya.
  8. Movchan, B.A., Malashenko, I.S. (1983) Vacuum deposited heat-resistant coatings. Kiev: Naukova Dumka.
  9. (1984) Improvement of surface quality and cladding of metals: Refer. Book. Ed. by A. Knaunirs. Moscow: Metallurgiya.
  10. Eliseev, Yu.S., Abramov, N.V., Krimov, V.V. (1999) Chemical heat treatment and protective coatings in aircraft building. Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola.
  11. Kostorzhitsky, A.I., Lebedinsky, O.V. (1987) Multicomponent vacuum coatings. Moscow: Mashinostroenie.
  12. Iliinsky, A.I. (1986) Structure and strength of laminated and dispersion-strengthened films. Moscow: Metallurgiya.
  13. Frantsevich, I.N. (1980) Electric contacts made by powder metallurgy method. Metallurgiya, 8, 36–47.
  14. Rakhovsky, V.I., Levchenko, G.V., Teodorovich, O.K. (1966) Interrupting contacts of electric apparatuses. Moscow: Metallurgiya.
  15. (1981) Sintered materials for electrical engineering and electronics: Refer. Book. Ed. by G.G. Gnesin. Moscow: Metallurgiya.
  16. (1982) Materials in instrument-making and automatics: Refer. Book. Ed. by Yu.M. Pyatin. Moscow: Mashinostroenie.
  17. (1985) Composite materials: Refer. Book. Ed. by D.M. Karpinos. Kiev: Naukova Dumka.
  18. Tuchinsky, L.I. (1998) Composite materials produced by impregnation method. Moscow: Metallurgiya.
  19. Minakova, R.V., Grekova, M.L., Kresanova, A.P. et al. (1995) Composite materials for contacts and electrodes. Metallurgiya, 7/8, 32–52.
  20. Slade, P.G. (2008) The vacuum interrupter. Theory, design and application. CRC Press.
  21. Khomenko, E.V., Grechanyuk, N.I., Zatovsky, V.Z. (2015) Modern composite materials for switching and welding equipment. Inf. 1. Powdered composite materials. The Paton Welding J., 10, 36–42. https://doi.org/10.15407/tpwj2015.10.06
  22. Leis, P., Schuster, K.K. (1979) Der Einfluss des Kontaktmaterials auf die Austilgung von Plasmastrahlen. Elektrik, 33(10), 541–516, 559.
  23. Movchan, B.A., Grechanyuk, N.I. (1988) New materials and coatings manufactured by electron beam technologies. In: of Int. Conf. on EBT (31 May–4 June 1988, Varna, Bulgaria), 1005–1023.
  24. Fatkullin, O.Kh. (1991) New structural powder materials and their application. In: Results of science and technology. Powder metallurgy, Vol. 5, 140–177. Moscow: VINITI.
  25. Singh, I., Wolfe, D.E. (2005) Review: Nano- and macrostructured component fabrication by EB-PVD. Materials Sci., 40, 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-005-5682-5
  26. Demchishin, A.V. (1981) Structure and properties of thick vacuum condensates of metallic and nonmetallic materials and scientific bases of their fabrication: Syn. of Thesis for Dr. of Techn. Sci. Degree. Kiev: PWI.
  27. Grechanyuk, N.I. (1988) New structural materials manufactured by vacuum vapor phase condensation for products of new technology: Syn. of Thesis for Dr. of Techn. Sci. Degree. Kiev: PWI.
  28. Minakova, R.V., Kresanova, A.P., Grechanyuk, N.I. (1996) Composite materials for contacts and electrodes. Materials on molybdenum base. In: Electric contacts and electrodes, 95–105. Kiev: IPM.
  29. Slade, P.E. (1986) Arc erosion of tungsten based contact materials: A review. J. Refractory and Hard Metals, 5(4), 208–214.
  30. (1979) Binary and multicomponent systems on copper base. Ed. by M.E. Drits et al. Moscow: Nauka.
  31. Mackey, T., Ziolkowski, I. (1980) Subsolidas phase diagram of Cu2O–CuO–MoO system. Solid Stat. Chem., 31, 135–143. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-4596(80)90016-X
  32. Mackey, T., Ziolkowski, I. (1980) Phase relation in the cupric molibdates–cuprous molibdates system. Ibid., 145–151.
  33. Grechanyuk, I.N. (2007) Structure, properties and electron beam technology in manufacturing of Cu–Zr–Y–Mo composite materials for electric contacts: Syn. of Thesis for Cand. of Techn. Sci. Degree. Kiev: IPM.
  34. Chornovol, V.O. (2011) Structure and corrosion resistance of Cu–Mo, Cu–W composite materials produced by electron beam evaporation-condensation method: Syn. of Thesis for Cand. of Techn. Sci. Degree. Kiev: IPM.
  35. Artyukh, A.Yu. (2011) Development of materials for electric contacts based on copper and molybdenum alloyed with Al, Cr, Zn, produced by electron beam evaporation-condensation method: Syn. of Thesis for Cand. of Techn. Sci. Degree. Kiev: IPM.
  36. Grechanyuk, V.G. (2013) Physical-chemical principles of formation of copper-based composite materials condensed from vapor phase: Syn. of Thesis for Cand. of Techn. Sci. Degree. Kiev: IPM.
  37. Grechanyuk, N.I., Osokin, V.A., Grechanyuk, I.N. et al. (2006) Composite materials on base of copper and molybdenum, condensed from vapor phase, for electric contacts. Structure, properties, technology. Pt 2: Fundamentals of electron beam technology for producing materials for electric contacts. Advances in Electrometallurgy, 2, 8–17.
  38. TUU 20113410.001–98: Dispersion-strengthened materials for electric contacts. Introd. 02.06.98.
  39. TU U24.4-33966101-001:2014: Dispersion-strengthened materials for electric contacts. Introd. 17.11.14.
  40. Grechanyuk, M.I., Osokin, V.O., Afanasiev, I.B. et al. (2002) Composite material for electric contacts and method for its manufacturing. Pat. 34875 Ukraine. Publ. 16.12.2002.
  41. Grechanyuk, M.I. (2005) Method of manufacturing microlayer thermally stable materials. Pat. 74155 Ukraine. Publ. 15.11.2005.
  42. Grechanyuk, N.I. (2006) Method of manufacturing of microlayer thermally stable materials. Pat. 2271404 RF. Publ. 03.10.2006.
  43. www.weldinglivetissues.com
  44. Grechanyuk, M.I., Grechanyuk, V.G., Bukhanovsky, V.V. (2014) Composite material for electric contacts and method for its manufacturing. Pat. 104673 Ukraine. Publ. 25.02.2014.
  45. Miedzinski, B., Okraszewski, Z., Grechanyuk, N. et al. (2008) Performance of sliding contacts with Cu–Mo layers for transportation in mining industry. In: Electric contacts and electrodes, 150–155. Kiew: IPM.
  46. Grechanyuk, N., Minakova, R., Bukhanovsky, V. et al. (2014) Manufacturing technique and properties of condensed copper–carbon composite materials for sliding electrical contacts. Open Access Library J., Vol. 1, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1100371
  47. Grechanyuk, M.I., Grechanyuk, I.M., Grechanyuk, V.G. (2009) Composite material for electric contacts and electrodes and method for its manufacturing. Pat. 86434 Ukraine. Publ. 27.04.2009.
  48. Bukhanovsky, V.V., Rudnitsky, M.P., Kharchenko, V.V. et al. (2011) Relation between composition, structure and mechanical properties of condensed composite material of copper–tungsten system. Problemy Prochnosti, 4, 87–102.
  49. Bukhanovskyi, V.V., Grechanyuk, N.I., Minakova, R.V., et al. (2001) Production technology, structure and properties of Cu–W layered composite condensed materials for electrical contacts. Refractory Metals and Hard Mater., 29 (Issue 5), 573–581.
  50. Denisenko, V.O., Minakova, R.V., Grechanyuk, V.G. et al. (2008) Structure and physical-chemical properties of composite copper and tungsten base materials manufactured by electron beam evaporation. Visnyk ChernivetsDU, Chemistry, Issue 422, 26–33.
  51. Miedzinski, B., Okrasczewski, Z., Grechanyuk, M. et al. (2010) Performance of LV vacuum contactors with condensed composite multicomponent contacts. In: Electric contacts and electrodes, 139–144. Kiew: IPM.
  52. Bukhanovsky, V.V., Grechanyuk, N.I., Rudnitsky, N.P. et al. (2009) Influence of technological factors on structure, mechanical properties and nature of fracture of composite material of copper-chrome system. Metallovedenie i Term. Obrab. Metallov, 8, 26–31.
  53. Grechanyuk, M.I., Plashchenko, M.M., Osokin, V.O. et al. (2000) Contact material for extinguishing chambers and method of its manufacturing. Pat. 32368A Ukraine. Publ. 15.12.2000.
  54. Grechanyuk, M.I., Plashchenko, M.M., Zvarych, A.V. et al. (2006) Contact system of vacuum extinguishing chamber. Pat. 76737 Ukraine. Publ. 15.09.2006.
  55. Grechanyuk, V.G. (2013) Corrosion-resistant composite materials on copper base and electron beam equipment for their manufacturing. Visnyk ChernivetsDU, Issue 640, 43–51.
  56. DSTU GOST 15.005:2009: Producing of items of single-part and small-bath productions assembled in operation site. Introd. 02.01.09.
  57. TU U 31.20113410-003–2002: Electric contacts based on dispersion-strengthened materials (MDK). Introd. 30.10.02.