2020 №04 (06) DOI of Article
2020 №04 (08)

Electrometallurgy Today 2020 #04
SEM, 2020, #4, 39-43 pages

Chemical potentials and activities in metallurgical processes

M.M. Gasik1, M.I. Gasik2
1Aalto University. 00076, Aalto, Espoo, Finland. E-mail: michael.gasik@aalto.fi
2National Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine. 4 Prosp. Gagarina, 49000, Dnipro, Ukraine. E-mail: tehnosplavy@ua.fm

The analysis of the correct calculation of chemical potentials of components in metallurgical processes is provided and the importance of the proper selection of the reference state is highlighted. This has direct implication on correct calculation of activity which must follow the principles of thermodynamics and be suitable for practical application in pyro- and hydrometallurgical processes. Ref. 9, fig. 1.
Keywords: thermodynamics; Gibbs energy; chemical potential; solutions; activity; melts

Received 11.11.2020


1. Schuhman, R.Jr. (1955) Application of Gibbs-Duhem equations to ternary systems. Acta Metall., 3, 219-226. https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-6160(55)90055-9
2. Lupis, C.H.P. (1983) Chemical thermodynamics of materials. NY, North-Holland.
3. Kubaschewski, O., Alcock, C.B. (1979) Metallurgical thermochemistry. 5th Ed. Oxford, Pergamon Press.
4. Hillert, M. (1998) Phase equilibria, phase diagrams and phase transformations: Their thermodynamic basis. Cambridge, Cambridge Univ. Press., UK.
5. Lokkiluoto, A., Gasik, M. (2012) Activities and free energy of mixing of sulfuric acid solutions by Gibbs-Duhem equation integration. J. Chem. Eng. Data, 57, 1665-1671. https://doi.org/10.1021/je2011743
6. Gasik, M. (2013) Handbook of ferroalloys: Theory and technology. Oxford, Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann, UK.
7. Okamoto, H., Massalski, T.B. (1991) Thermodynamically impossible phase diagrams. J. Phase Equilib., 12(2), 148-168. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02645711
8. Miettinen, J., Visuri, V.V., Fabritius, T. (2019) Thermodynamic description of the Fe-Al-Mn-Si-C system for modelling solidification of steels. Acta Univ. Oul., C704.
9. Ohtani, H., Hasebe, M., Nishizawa, T. (1984) Calculation of Fe-C, Co-C and Ni-C phase diagrams. Transact. ISIJ, 84, 857-864. https://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational1966.24.857

Advertising in this issue: