DOI of Article
Avtomaticheskaya Svarka (Automatic Welding), № 7, 2019 г., с.9-15
Influence of the shape of the tool for firction stir welding on physico-mechanical properties of welds of aluminium alloy EN AW 6082-T6
K. Krasnovski1, Yu.A. Khokholova2, M.A. Khokholov2
Institute of Welding, 16-18 Bl. Czeslava str., Gliwice, 44-100, Poland
E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute of the NAS of Ukraine.
11 Kazymyr Malevych Str., 03150 Kyiv, Ukraine. E-mail: email@example.com
The paper presents the results of studying the formation of macrostructure and distribution of mechanical properties in welded joints of flat samples from aluminium alloy EN AW 6082-T6 8 mm thick, produced by the method of friction stir welding with application of three types of specially designed pins with shoulders: C — cylindrical threaded pin and shoulder with a spiral groove; T — cylindrical threaded pin with three grooves and shoulder with a spiral groove; S — smooth cylindrical pin without thread and flat shoulder. Friction stir welding was conduced in the equipment of the Institute of Welding in Gliwice (Poland), and treatment and mechanical testing were conducted at PWI. Mechanical testing by indentation was performed in Micron-gamma instrument, which allows experimental identification of the structural state of metal after refinement and determination of the presence of strain ageing by limit values of the ratio of hardness to Young’s modulus of elasticity. It is found that for all the three samples HAZ hardness decreases, and in the thermomechanical impact zone hardness increases. Maximum hardness values are inherent to the central part of welded joint nugget, as well as to light-coloured oval concentrated fragments of the structure in the nugget upper and lower part. Judging by the presence of nanosized strengthened structure and uniformity of its distribution in the nugget, as well as good dispersion of oxide films and absence of discontinuities, friction stir welding with C-type tool can be regarded as the optimum variant. An assumption was made that formation of a uniform structure in welds can be achieved at three-four rotations of the tool in friction stir welding in one spot. 21 Ref., 1 Tabl., 7 Fig.
Keywords: friction stir welding, thermomechanical impact zone, weld nugget, indentation, Berkovich indender, Young’s modulus, physico-mechanical properties
1. Thomas, W.M., Nicholas, E.D., Needham, J.C. et al. (1991) Friction stir butt welding. European Patent Specification 06 15 480 B1.
2. Dawes, C.J. (1995) An introduction of friction stir welding and its development. Welding & Metal Fabrication, 63, 13-16.
3. Mishra, R.S., Ma, Z.Y. (2005) Friction Stir Welding and Processing. Mater. Sci. Eng., 50A, 1-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mser.2005.07.001
4. Uday, M.B., Ahmad Fauzi, M.N., Zuhailawati, H., Ismail, A.B. (2010) Advances in friction welding process: A Review. Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 15, 534-558. https://doi.org/10.1179/136217110X12785889550064
5. Krasnowski, K., Sędek, P., Łomozik, M., Pietras, A. (2011) Impact of selected FSW parameters on mechanical properties of 6082-T6 aluminium alloy butt joints. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, 56, 4, 965-973. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10172-011-0106-9
6. Threagill, P.L., Leonard, A.J., Shercliff, H.R., Withers, P.J. (2009) Friction stir welding of aluminium alloys. Int. Mater. Rev., 54(2), 49-93. https://doi.org/10.1179/174328009X411136
7. Nandan, R., DebRoy, T., Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H. (2008) Recent advances in friction-stir welding: process, weldment structure and properties. Prog. Mater Sci., 53, 980-1023. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2008.05.001
8. Krasnowski, K., Dymek, S. (2013) A comparative analysis of the impact of tool design to fatigue behavior of single-sided and double-sided welded butt joints of EN AW 6082-T6 Alloy. J. of Mater. Eng. and Performance, 22(12), 3818-3824. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-013-0711-z
9. Krasnowski, K. (2014) Fatigue and static properties of friction stir welded aluminium alloy 6082 lap joints using Triflute-type and smooth tool. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, 59(1), 157-162. https://doi.org/10.2478/amm-2014-0025
10. Kalemba, I., Kopyscianski, M., Dymek, S. (2010) Investigation of friction stir welded Al-Zn-Mg-Cu aluminum alloys. Steel Research Int., 81(9), 1088-1096.
11. Mustafa, B., Adem, K. (2004) The influence of stirrer geometry on bonding and mechanical properties in friction stir welding process. Materials and Design, 25, 343-347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2003.11.005
12. Standard DIN EN 573-3:2009: Aluminium and aluminium alloys. Pt 3: Chemical composition and form of wrought products. Chemical composition and form of products.
13. Oliver, W.C., Pharr, G.M. (1992) An improved technique for determining the hardness and elastic modulus using load displacement sensing indentation experiments. J. Mater. Res., 7, 1564-1583. https://doi.org/10.1557/JMR.1992.1564
14. Oliver, W.C., Pharr, G.M. (2004) Measurement of hardness and elastic modulus by instrumented indentation: Advances in understanding and refinements to methodology. Ibid., 19(1), 3-21. https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2004.19.1.3
15. Khokhlova, Yu.A., Klochkov, I.N., Grinyuk, A.A., Khokhlov, M.A. (2009) Verification of Young's modulus determination using «Micron-gamma» microprobe system. Tekh. Diagnost. i Nerazrush. Kontrol, 1, 30-32 [in Russian].
16. Khokhlova, Yu.A., Ishchenko, D.A., Khokhlov, M.A. (2017) Indentation from macro- to nanometer level and examples of investigation of properties of materials with a special structure. Ibid., 1, 30-36 [in Russian]. https://doi.org/10.15407/tdnk2017.01.05
17. Nano indenters from micro star technologies. Revision 2.3. http://www.microstartech.com
18. Kazuhisa Miyoshi (2002) Surface characterization techniques: An Overview NASA/TM-2002-211497, 12-22.
19. Doener, M.F., Nix, W.D. (1986) Indentation problems. J. Mater. Res., 1, 601-614. https://doi.org/10.1557/JMR.1986.0601
20. Gorban, V.F., Mameka, N.A., Pechkovsky, E.P., Firstov, S.A. (2007) Identification of structural state of materials by automatic indentation method. In: Proc. of Kharkov Nanotechnological Assembly (Ukraine, Kharkov, 23-27 April 2007). Ed. by I.M. Neklyudov et al. Vol. 1: Nanostructural materials, 52-55 [in Russian].
21. Firstov, S.A., Gorban, V.F., Pechkovsky, E.P., Mameka, N.A. (2007) Relationship of strength characteristic with indexes of automatic indentation. Materialovedenie, 11, 26-31 [in Russian].