Позорная война рф против Украины

Начата 20 февраля 2014 и полномасштабно продолжена 24 февраля 2022 года. С первых же минут рф ведет ее с нарушением законов и правил войны, захватывает атомные станции, уничтожает бомбардировками мирное население и объекты критической инфраструктуры. Правители и армия рф - военные преступники. Все, кто платит им налоги или оказывают какую-либо поддержку - пособники терроризма. Народ Украины вас никогда не простит и ничего не забудет.

2019 №01 (04) DOI of Article
2019 №01 (06)

Electrometallurgy Today 2019 #01
SEM, 2019, #1, 35-45 pages

Journal                    Sovremennaya Elektrometallurgiya
Publisher                International Association «Welding»
ISSN                      2415-8445 (print)
Issue                       № 1, 2019 (February)
Pages                      35-45
Application of electric slag and vacuum-arc remelts to improve the quality of the metal of the all-rolled railway wheels

M.I. Gasik, Yu.S. Projdak
National metallurgical academy of Ukraine. 4 Gagarina Ave., 49005, Dnipro, Ukraine. Е-mail: nmetau@ nmetau.еdu.ua

The results of experimental-industrial large-scale works on improving the quality of wheel steel by the methods of electric slag and vacuum arc melting, for the first time carried out by the Department of Electrometallurgy of the National metallurgical academy of Ukraine and the Dneprospetsstal plant, were summarized and analyzed. The route scale for producing consumable electrodes from open-hearth (250 t furnace) and electric furnace (30 t EAF) steel, the characteristics of installations for electroslag (OKB-905, OKB-1065) and vacuum-arc (DSV-63) remelts are presented. The physical and chemical processes and mechanisms for improving the quality of wheel steel during electroslag remelting are considered. The results of tests of mechanical properties of metal of all-rolled wheels produced from steel ingots after electroslag and vacuum-arc remelting are presented and summarized. The directions of works on improving the quality of the axial steel of grade ЕА1N for railway axes currently produced from continuously-cast blooms of oxygen-converting steel and electric steel ingots subjected to rolling with the following forging are considered. The problems of conducting experimental-industrial studies on further improvement of the quality of railway axes produced from electroslag and vacuum-arc remelting ingots, are summarized. Ref. 20, Tabl. 11, Fig. 4.
Key words: electroslag remelting; vacuum arc remelting; metal; quality; mold; properties; all-rolled wheels; railway axes
Received:                20.06.18
Published:               19.02.19
1. Uzlov, I.G., Gasik, M.I., Esaulov, A.T. et al. (1985) Wheel steel. Kiev, Tekhnika [in Russian].
2. Uzlov, I.G., Shneerov, Ya.A., Gasik, M.I. et al. (1979) Development of technology of wheel steel melting in electric furnaces. Bulleten TsNII ChM, 23, 31–35 [in Russian].
3. Gasik, M.I., Projdak, Yu.S., Gorobets, A.P. (1986) ESR – efficient technology in increase of quality of wheel and bearing metal. In: Electroslag technology. Ed. by B.E. Paton et al. Kiev, Naukova Dumka, 27–31 [in Russian].
4. Latash, Yu.V., Medovar, B.I. (1970) Electroslag remelting. Moscow, Metallurgiya [in Russian].
5. Andreini, R.J., Foster, J.S. (1979) Kinetics of solute removal during electron beam and vacuum arc melting. J. Vac. and Metal, 6, 1055–1059.
6. Povolotsky, D.Ya., Kofman, Yu.V., Sergeev, A.B. (1978) Influence of vacuum arc remelting of steels and alloys on composition of metal and distribution of elements in ingot. Izv. Vuzov, Chyorn. Metallurgiya, 6, 65–66 [in Russian].
7. Shved, F.I., Sergeev, A.B., Karyakin, A.P. et al. (1973) Behavior of manganese in vacuum arc remelting of steel. In: Proc. of All-Union Conf. on Current Problems of Electrometallurgy of Steel, Chelyabinsk, 116, 105–114 [in Russian].
8. Linchevsky, B.V. (1970) Vacuum metallurgy of steels and alloys. Moscow, Metallurgiya [in Russian].
9. Chujko, N.M., Loza, V.V. (1975) Removal of oxygen from steel in vacuum arc remelting. Izvestiya AN SSSR. Metally, 1, 7–14 [in Russian].
10. Shilnikov, G.Yu., Zimin, G.G., Berezhko, B.I. et al. (1973) Change in structure and properties of steel of 12Kh1MF grade, caused by vacuum arc remelting. In: Proc. of All-Union Conf. on Current Problems of Electrometallurgy of Steel, Chelyabinsk, 116, 145–151 [in Russian].
11. Akhmatov, Yu.S., Lisnyak, A.G., Perkov, O.N. et al. (1978) Influence of vacuumizing of wheel steel on its properties. Termich. Obrabotka Metallov, 7, 41–42 [in Russian].
12. Miroshnichenko, N.G., Kuzmichev, M.V., Borisova, Zh.A. (1977) Interrelation of steel characteristics in dynamic and static tests. Ibid., 5, 82–86 [in Russian].
13. Ovsyannikov, B.M., Ladko, V.G. (1973) Relationship between fracture toughness of structural steels and chemical composition and structure. Spetsialnye Stali i Splavy, 2, 116–125 [in Russian].
14. Levchenko, G.V., Balakhova, T.V., Mospam, V.V. et al. (2016) Quality assurance of railway axles produced from continuous casting billets of different section. Metallurg. i Gornorudnaya Promyshlennost, 1, 29–33 [in Russian].
15. Levchenko, G.V., Demina, E.G., Vorobej, S.A. et al. (2009) Evaluation of strained state of metal on change of dendritic structure. Ibid., 5, 72–75 [in Russian].
16. Levchenko, G.V., Ershov, S.V., Demina, E.G. et al. (2008) Transformation of dendritic structure at all stages of manufacture of railway axles. Ibid., 2, 74–76 [in Russian].
17. Levchenko, G.V., Ershov, S.V., Demina, E.G. et al. (2008) Influence of modes of ingot deformation on dendritic structure transformation of billets for manufacture of railway axles. In: Information technology in pressure treatment: Transact., 27 [in Russian].
18. Gasik, M.I., Salnikov, A.S., Peresadenko, O.V., Loza, V.V. (2009) Development and industrial mastering of end-to-end technology of production of forged roughing axles of electric steel EAIN (35G). Sovrem. Elektrometall., 4, 40–48 [in Russian].
19. Tumko, A.N., Logozinsky, I.N., Peresadenko, O.V. et al. (2010) Investigation of technological schemes in manufacture of profile axle billets for railway rolling stocks. Metallurg. i Gornorudnaya Promyshlennost, 4, 40–43 [in Russian].