Avtomaticheskaya Svarka (Automatic Welding), #9, 2016, pp. 61-65
Modern approaches to performance of toxicological and hygienic studies of welding fumes (Review)
A.O. Lukianenko1 and A.V. Demetskaya2
E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute, NASU 11 Kazimir Malevich Str., 03680, Kiev, Ukraine. E-mail: email@example.com
Institute of Occupational Medicine, NAMSU 75 Saksagansky Str., 01033, Kiev, Ukraine
The paper provides an overview of the results of studying the nanoscale fractions in the working zone air during welding operations and in the welder’s breathing zone, as well as data of toxicological studies of welding fumes (WF) in experiments on laboratory animals (in vivo) and in cell culture experiments (in vitro). It is suggested that the high disease rate in welders can be caused not only by toxicity of WF components having irritating and mutagenic effects, but also by the ability of nanoscale particles (nanoparticles) to penetrate deeply into the tissues. The data of hygienic studies of nanoparticle emission into the working zone air during welding operations, as well as of studying nanoscale fraction deposition in the respiratory tract of welders are presented. It is shown that decrease in the content of hexavalent chromium and manganese in the welding consumable involves increasing the concentrations of other metals, and thus does not guarantee safety for the welder. The role of prediction of WF harmful effects on the body by controlling the working conditions using modern hygienic approaches is substantiated. Simultaneous application of in vitro and in vivo methods to provide the most complete information about the potential hazards of WF, peculiarities of biological action of its components, as well as the need to develop not only informative, but also less time-consuming and costly express-methods of screening assessment of toxicity of WF, generated at different types of welding was substantiated. These methods will allow evaluation of the cumulative effect of the impact of totality of toxicants present in WF solid component, including unidentified components. 21 Ref.
welding fumes, solid component of welding fume, working zone air, cytotoxicity, in vitro, in vivo, nanoparticles
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