Eng
Ukr
Rus
Печать
2015 №01 (08) DOI of Article
10.15407/tdnk2015.01.01
2015 №01 (02)

Техническая диагностика и неразрушающий контроль 2015 #01
Техническая диагностика и неразрушающий контроль, №1, 2015 стр. 7-16
 
ЗАСТОСУВАННЯ МЕТОДУ АКУСТИЧНОЇ ЕМІСІЇ ДЛЯ ДІАГНОСТУВАННЯ КОРПУСІВ ЯДЕРНИХ РЕАКТОРІВ (Огляд)
Повідомлення ІІ. Метод акустичної емісії в діагностуванні корпусів реакторів АЕС. Частина 2

Автори:
І. М. Неклюдов, З. Т. Назарчук, В. Р. Скальський, Л. Н. Добровольська
G.V. Karpenko Physico-Mechanical Institute, NASU

Реферат:
Перші акустико-емісійні (АЕ) вимірювальні системи виробничого зразка та встановлені кореляції між параметрами сигналів АЕ та показниками розвитку руйнування були створені у другій половині XX сторіччя. Саме це й стало підставою зацікавлення розробників атомних енергетичних технологій та експлуатаційників цим новим методом, який згодом стане ефективним доповненням до існуючих технологій неруйнівного контролю (НК) для виявлення та моніторингу дефектів корпусів ядерних реакторів. Оскільки до таких об’єктів поставлено винятково високі вимоги якості та цілісності, то вже в кінці 1970-х років було спрямовано значні зусилля на розвиток методу АЕ і запровадження його у виробництво. Практична реалізація засобів і методик АЕ-моніторингу та діагностування стану корпусів реакторів АЕС підтвердила високу ефективність методу, хоча на початку їх становлення були різні твердження щодо цього. Бібліогр. 40, рис. 3.
 
Ключові слова:акустична емісія, показники розвитку руйнування, атомні енергетичні технології, виявлення та моніторинг дефектів
  1. Bently, P. G. (1981) A review of acoustic emission for pressurised water reactor applications. NDT Intern., 14, 329–335. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-9126(81)90112-7
2. Scruby, C. B., Wadley, H.N.G. (1983) An assessment of acoustic emission for nuclear pressure vessel monitoring. Progress in Nuclear Energy, 11, 275–297. https://doi.org/10.1016/0149-1970(83)90014-8
3. Runow, P. (1985) The use of acoustic emission methods as aids to the structural integrity assessment of nuclear power plants. Intern. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 21, 157–207. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-0161(85)90001-8
4. Hutton P.H., Taylor, T.T. Dawson, J.F. et al. (1982) Acoustic emission monitoring of ASME section III hydrostatic test, Watts Bar Unit 1 nuclear reactor. In: Research Report NUREG/CR-2880, PNL-4307. Richland, Pacific Northwest Laboratory.
5. Jones, R.H., Hutton, P.H., Friesel, M.A., Wolf, S.M. (1984) Observation and identification of crack growth modes in reactor steels using acoustic emission. Workshop Proceedings. PNL-SA-12656. Richland, Pacific Northwest Laboratory.
6. Hutton, P.H., Dawson, J.F., Friesel, M.A. et al. (1984) Acoustic emission monitoring of hot functional testing: Watts Bar Unit 1 nuclear reactor. In: Research Report NUREG/CR-3693, PNL-5022. Richland, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, 1984.
7. Hutton, P. H., Kurtz,R. J., Pappas, R. A. (1983) AE/Flaw characterization for nuclear pressure vessels. In: Proc. of the 10th annual Conf. Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (Santa Cruz, 7–12 Aug., 1983). New York, 1984, 3B 735–743.
8. Hutton, P. H., Kurtz ,R. J., Friesel, M. A. et al. (1984) Summary of detection, location, and characterization capabilities of AE for continuous monitoring of cracks in reactors. In: Research Report PNL-SA-12548. Richland, Pacific Northwest Laboratory.
9. Hutton, P. H., Pappas, R. A., Friesel, M. A. (1984) Acoustic emission monitoring of preservice testing at Watts Bar Unit 1 nuclear reactor. In: Research report PNL-SA-12567. Richland, Pacific Northwest Laboratory.
10. Hutton, P. H., Kurtz, R. J. (1984) Acoustic emission for on-line reactor monitoring. Results from field tests. In: Proc. of the 11th Annual Conf. on Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (San Diego, CA, 8–13 July, 1984). New York, 1985, 701–708.
11. Hutton, P. H., Kurtz, R.J. (1985) Current capabilities for continuous AE monitoring to detect flaws in reactor pressure boundaries. In: Research Report PNL-SA-13035. Richland, Pacific Northwest Laboratory.
12. Hutton, P. H. (1985) Continuous AE monitoring of nuclear plants to detect flaws: status and future. In: CSNI Specialist Meeting on Continuous Monitoring Techniques for Assuring Coolant Circuit Integrity (London, 12 Aug 1985). Report PNL-SA-13336. – Richland, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, 1985.
13. Hutton, P. H. (1985) On-line acoustic emission monitoring of nuclear reactor systems – status and future. J. of Acoustic Emission, 4, S74–S76.
14. Hutton, P. H., Kurtz, R. J., Pappas, R. A. (1985) Acoustic emission for on-line reactor pressure boundary monitoring. In: Research Report PNL-SA-12195. Richland, Pacific Northwest Laboratory.
15. Hutton, P. H., Kurtz, R.J. (1985) Acoustic emission for on-line reactor monitoring: Results of intermediate vessel test monitoring and reactor hot functional testing. Nuclear Eng. and Design, 86, 3–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/0029-5493(85)90203-1
16. Hutton, P. H., Kurtz, R. J., Pappas, R. A. et al. (1985) Acoustic emission results obtained from testing the ZB-1 Intermediate scale pressure vessel. In: Research Report NUREG/CR-3915, PNL-5184. Richland, Pacific Northwest Laboratory.
17. Hutton, P. H., Kurtz, R. J., Pappas R. A. (1985) Acoustic emission monitoring of ZB-1 Intermediate scale vessel test. Nuclear Eng. and Design, 84, 171–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/0029-5493(85)90187-6
18. Hutton, P. H., Friesel, M. A., Kurtz, R. J. (1985) Progress for on-line acoustic emission monitoring of cracks in reactor systems. In: Research Report PNL-SA-13350. Richland, Pacific Northwest Laboratory.
19. Hutton, P. H., Kurtz, R. J., Friesel, M. A. (1985) Summary of detection, location and characterization capabilities of AE for continuous monitoring of cracks in reactors. In: Proc. of the 12th Water Reactor Safety Research Information Meeting; USNRC Conf. Proc. NUREG/CP–0058, 4, 362–380.
20. Hutton, P. H., Kurtz, R.J., Friesel, M. A. (1986) Progress for on-line acoustic emission monitoring of cracks in reactor systems. In: Proc. of the 13th Water Reactor Safety Research Information Meeting; USNRC Conf. Proc. NUREG/CP–0072, 2, 553–564.
21. Hutton, P. H., Friesel, M.A., Kurtz, R.J. (1987) Progress for on-line acoustic emission monitoring of cracks in reactor systems. In: Proc. of the 14th Water Reactor Safety Research Information Meeting; USNRC Conf. Proc. NUREG/CP–0082, 2. – P. 43–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/0029-5493(87)90161-0
22. Hutton, P. H., Friesel, M. A., Kurtz, R. J. (1988) On-line acoustic emission monitoring for crack growth in LWRs. In: Proc. of the 15th Water Reactor Safety Research Information Meeting; USNRC Conf. Proc. NUREG/CP–0091, 2, 333–342.
23. Doctor, S. R., Taylor, T. T., Hutton, P. H. (1985) Overview of NRC funded NDE research at US Pacific Northwest laboratory. Nuclear Eng. and Design, 87, 207–214. https://doi.org/10.1016/0029-5493(85)90109-8
24. Hutton, P. H. (1987) Acoustic emission/flaw relationship for in-service monitoring of nuclear pressure vessels: Progress report. In: Research Report NUREG/CR-4300; PNL-5511, 3(2). Richland, Pacific Northwest Laboratory.
25. Hutton, P.H., Kurtz, R.J., Friesel, M.A. (1987) Progress for on-line acoustic emission monitoring of cracks in reactor systems. Nuclear Eng. and Design, 98, 135–140. https://doi.org/10.1016/0029-5493(87)90161-0
26. Hutton, P. H., Friesel, M. A., Dawson, J.F., Harris, J.C. (1988) Acoustic emission system calibration at Watts Bar Unit 1 Nuclear Reactor. In: Research Report NUREG/CR-5144, PNL-6549. Richland, Pacific Northwest Laboratory.
27. Hutton, P. H. (1988) Acoustic emission for continuous monitoring of light-water reactor systems: A status review. Materials Evaluation, 46(2), 241–246.
28. Hutton, P. H. (1989) An overview of development and application of acoustic emission methods in the United States. Nuclear Eng. and Design, 113, 59–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/0029-5493(89)90296-3
29. Hutton, P. H., Kurtz, R. J., Friesel, M. A. (1991) Acoustic emission/flaw relationships for in-service monitoring of LWRs. In: Research Report NUREG/CR-5645, PNL-7479. Richland: Pacific Northwest Laboratory.
30. Hutton, P. H. (1993) Listening to reactor pressure boundaries for the sounds of cracks and leaks. Nuclear Eng. Intern., 38, 38–40.
31. Hutton, P. H., Friesel, M. A., Dawson, J. F. (1993) Continuous AE crack monitoring of a dissimilar metal weldment at Limerick Unit 1. In: Research Report NUREG/CR-5963, PNL-8844. Richland, Pacific Northwest Laboratory.
32. (1994) Inservice inspection code case acceptability. In: Regulatory guide 1.147; ASME Section XI; Division 1. Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, USNRC. Washington: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Revision 11.
33. Ohira, T., Pao, Y.-H. (1986) Microcrack initiation and acoustic emission during fracture toughness tests of A533B. Metallurg. Transact., 17A, 843–852. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02643860
34. Ohira, T., Pao, Y.-H. (1989) Quantitative characterization of microcracking in A533B steel by acoustic emission. Ibid., 20A, 1105–1114. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02650145
35. Kussmaul, K., Blind, D., Jansky, J. (1986) Influence of repair welding on cyclic thermal shock behaviour of a RPV nozzle corner. Intern. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 25, 89–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-0161(86)90095-5
36. Deuster, G. Walte, F., Waschkies, E., Neubrech, G.E. (1986) Interpretation of crack propagation events on the basis of acoustic emission signals and other non-destructive test results concerning cracks in RPV nozzle under cyclic thermal shock loading. Nuclear Eng. and Design, 96, 381–394. https://doi.org/10.1016/0029-5493(86)90275-X
37. Waschkies, E., Hepp, K., Hoeller, P. (1986) Monitoring thermal shock induced crack growth in a feed water nozzle corner of a reactor pressure vessel by acoustic emission. NDT Intern., 19, 197–202. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-9126(86)90109-4
38. Gries, H., Waschkies, E. (1988) Results of acoustic emission during mechanical and thermal loadings of vessel components and their fracture mechanical interpretation. Nuclear Eng. and Design, 106, 399–403. https://doi.org/10.1016/0029-5493(88)90299-3
39. Neubrech, G.E., Walte, F., Waschkies, E., Klein, M. (1989) A fracture mechanics interpretation of acoustic emission results. Ibid., 112, 139–154. https://doi.org/10.1016/0029-5493(89)90152-0
40. Deuster, G., Brinette, R. (1991) Surveillance of defects under cyclic loads and during hot and cold hydro-tests by acoustic emission, UT and potential drop techniques (German HRD-programme). Ibid., 128, 67–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/0029-5493(91)90250-L
 
First acoustic-emission (AE) measuring systems of commercial modification were developed, and correlations between AE signal parameters and fracture propagation characteristics were established in the first half of the XXth century. This was exactly the basis for awakening the interest of nuclear energy technology developers and operators to this new method, which will eventually become an effective addition to the existing technologies of non-destructive testing (NDT) for detection and monitoring of nuclear reactor body defects. In view of the extremely high requirements made to such facilities in terms of their quality and integrity, significant efforts were focused on AE method development and its introduction into industry already at the end of 1970ties. Practical realization of the techniques and means for AE monitoring and diagnostics of the condition of NPP reactor bodies confirmed the high effectiveness of the method, although different opinions were expressed on this subject at the start of their introduction. 40 References, 3 Figures.
 
Keywords: acoustic emission, fracture development indices, nuclear power technologies, defect detection and monitoring
 
Надійшла до редакціі 10.09.2014
Піписано до друку 18.03.2015.
 
>